• Marija Shterjovska, MA Yahya Kemal College, Skopje
  • Elena Achkovska-Leshkovska, Dr. Institute of psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University-Skopje
Keywords: Time perspective, Meaning in life, Sources of meaning, Students


The purpose of this study was to determine whether meaning in life among Macedonian students can be predicted based on their dominant orientation toward past, present or future. Participants in the study were 252 students aged 18 to 27 years. Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory was used for measuring five factors of time perspective, while two dimensions of meaning in life were measured with Meaning in Life Questionnaire. The results showed that students with sentimental attitude toward past (Past Positive), with the absence of traumatic past experiences (Past Negative), hedonistic orientation (Present Hedonistic) and direction to future goals and achievements (Future), report presence of meaning in life. On the other hand, students who search for meaning in life are those who have a sentimental relationship with the past and future orientation, as well as unpleasant memories of the past and the present fatalistic view determined by external factors (Present Fatalistic). Hence, significant predictors of Presence of Meaning in Life appeared to be orientation toward past positive, hedonistic present and the future, as well as avoidance of the negative past reminiscences, explaining 11.6% of the variance. The Search for Meaning in Life can be predicted from Past Positive, Past Negative and Future, thus explaining 12.9% of the variance. The findings confirmed the relevance of temporal perspective on the meaning in life in Macedonian students. Investigation revealed that most contributing sources of meaning in life among adolescents are relationships with family, partners and friends. 


Download data is not yet available.


Ачковска Лешковска, Е., Штерјовска, М. (2013). Временската перспектива како предиктор на субјективната добросостојба кај македонските студенти. Годишен зборникна Филозофскиот факултет, Скопје, 66, 135-147.
Boniwell, I. (2005). Beyond time management: how the latest research on time perspective and perceived time use can assist clients with time-related concerns. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 3(2), 61-74.
Eryılmaz, A. (2011). The Relationship Between Adolescents’ Subjective Well-being and Positive Expectations Towards Future. Düşünen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 24, 209-215.
Frankl, E. V. (1977). Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Mulders, L.T.E. (2011). Meaning in life and its relationship to psychological well-being in adolescents, Master thesis submitted in Faculty of Social and Behavioural Theses, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
Oles, P., Brygola, E. & Sibinska, M. (2010). Temporal dialogues and their influence on affective states and the meaning of life. International Journal for Dialogical Science, 4 (1), 23-43.
Przepiorka, A. (2012). The Relationship Between Attitude Toward Time and the Presence of Meaning in Life. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(3), 22-30.
Sobol-Kwapinska, M. (2009). Forms of present time orientation and satisfaction with life in the context of attitudes toward past and future. Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal, 37 (4), 433-440.
Spasovski, O., Kenig, N. & Kim, Young-Hoon (2012). Past strikes again: Evaluation of the Past and Subjective Wellbeing.Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Time Perspective, University of Coimbra, Portugal. (http://www.tpconference2012.com/pdf/ictp2012__abstracts_book.pdf)
Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 53, 80-93.
Steger, M. F., Kashdan, T. B., Sullivan, B. A. & Lorentz, D. (2008). Understanding the Search for Meaning in Life: Personality, Cognitive Style, and the Dynamic Between Seeking and Experiencing Meaning, Journal of Personality, 76, 199-228.
Steger, M. F. (2009). Meaning in life. In Lopez, S. J. (Ed.). Encyclopaedia of positive psychology. (Vol.1). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Steger, M.F., Oishi, S. & Kesebir, S. (2011). Is a Life without Meaning Satisfying? The Moderating Role of the Search for Meaning in Satisfaction with Life Judgments, Journal of Positive Psychology, 6, 173-180.
Shterjovska,M., Achkovska-Leshkovska, E. (2013). Is a meaningful life a satisfying one? Zbornik radova sa XIX naučnog skupa Empirijska istraživanja u psihologiji, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu, 181-188.
Wong, P. T. P. (2012). Toward a Duel-Systems Model of What Makes Life Worth Living In P. T. P. Wong (Ed.), The Human Quest for Meaning, (pp. 3-22). New York: Routledge.
Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting Time in Perspective: A Valid, Reliable Individual-difference Metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.
How to Cite
Shterjovska, M., & Achkovska-Leshkovska, E. (2014). TIME PERSPECTIVE AS PREDICTOR OF MEANING IN LIFE. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 2(1), 25-29. Retrieved from http://ijcrsee.com/index.php/ijcrsee/article/view/199