Students’ Acceptance of Mobile Augmented Reality Applications in Primary and Secondary Biology Education




augmented reality, biology teaching, mobile application, Technology Acceptance Model, technology-enhanced learning


Augmented reality is often indicated as a usable educational technology that can be integrated into biology classes to overcome the shortcomings of traditional teaching (such as lack of visualization of abstract teaching content, students’ low participation and interest in classes, and their insufficient understanding of complex topics). Mobile applications with augmented reality experience mode have the potential to be used in online, blended/hybrid, and in-person teaching, which is particularly important during emergencies. This study’s purpose was to determine primary and secondary school students’ acceptance of augmented reality content in commercial mobile applications that can be used as a supplement in biology teaching. A total of 188 students (from schools included in this research) completed the online questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of students perceived mobile augmented reality applications as useful and easy to use, had a positive attitude, and expressed intention to use this educational technology if given the opportunity. The importance of prior evaluation regarding educational usability and performance is highlighted since technical quality (of used mobile applications) had a strong positive effect on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. There were no statistically significant differences between female and male and primary and secondary students, but students with prior experience with augmented reality rated perceived usefulness higher. Despite positive results, we need to raise our concerns regarding the reliability of using mobile augmented reality in biology education due to the lack of usable free content and the frequent cancellation of authoring tools and applications.


Download data is not yet available.


Akçayır, M., & Akçayır, G. (2017). Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of the literature. Educational Research Review, 20, 1-11. DOI:

Atanasković, M., Stojšić, I., Stanisavljević, L., & Stanisavljević, J. (2022). Stavovi učenika o primeni digitalnog kviza u nastavi biologije u srednjoj školi [Students’ attitudes towards the application of digital quiz in high school biology teaching]. Pedagoška stvarnost, 68(1), 48-63.

Balog, A., & Pribeanu, C. (2010). The role of perceived enjoyment in the students’ acceptance of an augmented reality teaching platform: A structural equation modelling approach. Studies in Informatics and Control, 19(3), 319-330. DOI:

Cabero Almenara, J., Barroso Osuna, J., & Llorente Cejudo, M. d. C. (2016). Technology Acceptance Model & realidad aumen-tada: Estudio en desarrollo [Technology Acceptance Model & augmented reality: Study in progress]. Revista Lasallista de Investigación, 13(2), 18-26. DOI:

Cabero-Almenara, J., Fernández-Batanero, J. M., & Barroso-Osuna, J. (2019). Adoption of augmented reality technology by university students. Heliyon, 5(5), Article e01597. DOI:

Chang, R.-C., Chung, L.-Y., & Huang, Y.-M. (2016). Developing an interactive augmented reality system as a complement to plant education and comparing its effectiveness with video learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 24(6), 1245-1264. DOI:

Chien, Y.‑C., Su, Y.‑N., Wu, T.‑T., & Huang, Y.‑M. (2019). Enhancing students’ botanical learning by using augmented reality. Universal Access in the Information Society, 18(2), 231-241. DOI:

Crompton, H., Burke, D., Jordan, K., & Wilson, S. W. G. (2021). Learning with technology during emergencies: A systematic review of K-12 education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(4), 1554-1575. DOI:

Daniela, L. (2021). Smart pedagogy as a driving wheel for technology‑enhanced learning. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 26(4), 711-718. DOI:

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340. DOI:

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003. DOI:

Dengel, A., Zahid Iqbal, M., Grafe, S., & Mangina, E. (2022). A review on augmented reality authoring toolkits for education. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 3, Article 798032. DOI:

Dreimane, S., & Daniela, L. (2021). Educational potential of augmented reality mobile applications for learning the anatomy of the human body. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 26(4), 763-788. DOI:

Erbas, C., & Demirer, V. (2019). The effects of augmented reality on students’ academic achievement and motivation in a biolo-gy course. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(3), 450-458. DOI:

Fuchsova, M., & Korenova, L. (2019). Visualisation in basic science and engineering education of future primary school teachers in human biology education using augmented reality. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 8(1), 92-102. DOI:

Garcia Estrada, J., & Prasolova-Førland, E. (2022). Improving adoption of immersive technologies at a Norwegian university. In A. Dengel, M.-L. Bourguet, D. Pedrosa, J. Hutson, K. Erenli, D. Economou, A. Peña-Rios, & J. Richter (Eds.), Proceedings of 2022 8th International conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network - iLRN (pp. 347-351). Immer-sive Learning Research Network. DOI:

Huang, H. M., & Liaw, S. S. (2018). An analysis of learners’ intentions toward virtual reality learning based on constructivist and technology acceptance approaches. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(1), 91-115. DOI:

Huang, H.-M., Liaw, S.-S., & Lai, C.-M. (2016). Exploring learner acceptance of the use of virtual reality in medical education: A case study of desktop and projection-based display systems. Interactive Learning Environments, 24(1), 3-19. DOI:

Hung, Y.-H., Chen, C.-H., & Huang, S.-W. (2017). Applying augmented reality to enhance learning: A study of different teaching materials. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(3), 252-266. DOI:

Hwang, G.-J., Wu, P.-H., Chen, C.-C., & Tu, N.-T. (2016). Effects of an augmented reality-based educational game on stu-dents’ learning achievements and attitudes in real-world observations. Interactive Learning Environments, 24(8), 1895-1906. DOI:

Jenkinson, J. (2018). Molecular biology meets the learning sciences: Visualizations in education and outreach. Journal of Molecular Biology, 430(21), 4013-4027. DOI:

Koutromanos, G., & Mikropoulos, T. A. (2021). Mobile augmented reality applications in teaching: A proposed Technology Ac-ceptance Model. In D. Economou, A. Peña-Rios, A. Dengel, H. Dodds, M. Mentzelopoulos, A. Klippel, K. Erenli, M. J. W. Lee, & J. Richter (Eds.), Proceedings of 2021 7th International conference of the Immersive Learning Research Net-work - iLRN (pp. 273-280). Immersive Learning Research Network. DOI:

Laine, T. H. (2018). Mobile educational augmented reality games: A systematic literature review and two case studies. Comput-ers, 7(1), Article 19. DOI:

Lu, S.-J., & Liu, Y.-C. (2015). Integrating augmented reality technology to enhance children’s learning in marine education. En-vironmental Education Research, 21(4), 525-541. DOI:

Mailizar., & Johar, R. (2021). Examining students’ intention to use augmented reality in a project-based geometry learning envi-ronment. International Journal of Instruction, 14(2), 773-790. DOI:

Mota, J. M., Ruiz-Rube, I., Dodero, J. M., & Arnedillo-Sánchez, I. (2018). Augmented reality mobile app development for all. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 65, 250-260. DOI:

Nurhasanah, Z., Widodo, A., & Riandi, R. (2019). Augmented reality to facilitate students’ biology mastering concepts and digital literacy. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 5(3), 481-488. DOI:

Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS (7th ed). Routledge. DOI:

Pombo, L., & Marques, M. M. (2020). The potential educational value of mobile augmented reality games: The case of Edu-PARK app. Education Sciences, 10(10), Article 287. DOI:

Radu, I. (2014). Augmented reality in education: A meta-review and cross-media analysis. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 18(6), 1533-1543. DOI:

Safadel, P., & White, D. (2019). Facilitating molecular biology teaching by using augmented reality (AR) and Protein Data Bank (PDB). TechTrends, 63(2), 188-193. DOI:

Salmi, H., Thuneberg, H., & Vainikainen, M.-P. (2017). Making the invisible observable by augmented reality in informal science education context. International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 7(3), 253-268. DOI:

Stojšić, I., Ivkov-Džigurski, A., Đukičin Vučković, S., & Maričić, O. (2019a). Primena proširene i virtuelne realnosti u nastavi geografije: SWOT analiza i predlog integracije [The use of augmented and virtual reality for geography teaching: Swot analysis and integration proposal]. In É. Borsos, R. Horák, C. Kovács, & Z. Námesztovszki (Eds.), Book of selected papers of the Hungarian Language Teacher Training Faculty’s scientific conferences (Mobility) - 8th International methodological conference (pp. 509-523). University of Novi Sad, Hungarian Language Teacher Training Faculty. Retreived from

Stojšić, I., Ivkov-Džigurski, A., & Maričić, O. (2019b). Virtual reality as a learning tool: How and where to start with immersive teaching. In L. Daniela (Ed.), Didactics of smart pedagogy: Smart pedagogy for technology enhanced learning (pp. 353-369). Springer. DOI:

Stojšić, I., Ivkov-Džigurski, A., Maričić, O., Stanisavljević, J., Milanković Jovanov, J., & Višnić, T. (2020). Students’ attitudes toward the application of mobile augmented reality in higher education. Društvena istraživanja, 29(4), 535-554. DOI:

Trivunović, B., & Kosanović, M. (2021). Faktori prihvatanja upotrebe tehnologije u visokoškolskoj nastavi: TAM model [Ac-ceptance factors of technology use in higher education teaching process: TAM model]. In V. Katić (Ed.), Zbornik radova TREND 2021: XXVII Skup trendovi razvoja “On-line nastava na univerzitetima” (pp.119-121). University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences. Retreived from

Wang, X.-M., Hu, Q.-N., Hwang, G.-J., & Yu, X.-H. (2022). Learning with digital technology-facilitated empathy: An augmented reality approach to enhancing students’ flow experience, motivation, and achievement in a biology program. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-17. DOI:

Weng, C., Otanga, S., Christianto, S. M., & Chu, R. J.-C. (2020). Enhancing students’ biology learning by using augmented reality as a learning supplement. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(4), 747-770. DOI:

Wojciechowski, R., & Cellary, W. (2013). Evaluation of learners’ attitude toward learning in ARIES augmented reality environments. Computers & Education, 68, 570-585. DOI:

Yapıcı, İ. Ü., & Karakoyun, F. (2021). Using augmented reality in biology teaching. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(3), 40-51. DOI:

Yavuz, M., Çorbacıoğlu, E., Başoğlu, A. N., Daim, T. U., & Shaygan, A. (2021). Augmented reality technology adoption: Case of a mobile application in Turkey. Technology in Society, 66, Article 101598. DOI:



How to Cite

Stojšić, I., Ostojić, N., & Stanisavljević, J. (2022). Students’ Acceptance of Mobile Augmented Reality Applications in Primary and Secondary Biology Education. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 10(3), 129–138.



Received 2022-08-13
Accepted 2022-11-16
Published 2022-12-20

Most read articles by the same author(s)