The Correlation Between Father Involvement and The Academic Achievement of Their Children: Meta-Analysis




father's involvement, academic achievement, children, meta-analysis


Parental involvement is an important factor in students’ achievement, and numerous studies have shown that it increases students’ success. As research on father’s involvement has become one of the current topics in education today, there is a need to separate the effect exercised by fathers from the overall family one. The aim of this study is to synthesize various studies which have focused on different aspects of fathers’ involvement; therefore, a meta-analysis would be an ideal method to create a synthesis of these perspectives and provide one general measure of fathers’ involvement effect. Nine studies have been included in the meta-analysis, where fathers’ involvement has been operationalized through father’s involvement in: education of children at school and at home, psychosocial well-being of children, modelling of behavior and leisure activities. The results show that the total measure of effect size differs from zero after applying the fixed model (z=13.510, p=0.000) and the random effect model (z=4.588, p=0.000), that is, there is a statistically significant positive correlation between the involvement of fathers and the academic success of their children. The value of the heterogeneity test (Q=66.560, df=8, p=.000, I2=87.981) indicates that the overall effect can be viewed according to the assumptions of the random effects model. The conducted meta-analysis has confirmed the assumption that fathers’ involvement is positively related to children’s academic performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Amato, P. R. (1994). Father-child relations, mother-child relations, and offspring psychological well-being in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1031-1042. DOI:

Amato, P. R., Dorius, C., & Lamb, M. (2010). Fathers, children and divorce. The role of the father in child development, 5, 177-200.

Astone, N. M., & McLanahan, S. S. (1991). Family structure, parental practices and high school completion. American sociological review, 309-320. DOI:

Atkinson, M. P., & Blackwelder, S. P. (1993). Fathering in the 20th century. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 975-986. DOI:

Baker, C. E. (2018). When daddy comes to school: Father–school involvement and children’s academic and social–emotional skills. Early Child Development and Care, 188(2), 208-219. DOI:

Baker, C. E., Kainz, K. L., & Reynolds, E. R. (2018). Family poverty, family processes and children’s preschool achievement: Understanding the unique role of fathers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(4), 1242-1251. DOI:

Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. (1986). Role quality, multiple role involvement, and psychological well-being in midlife women. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(3), 578. DOI:

Belsky, J. (2007). Social-contextual determinants of parenting. Encyclopedia on early childhood development.

Bing, E. (1963). Effect of childrearing practices on development of differential cognitive abilities. Child development, 631-648. DOI:

Blazer, C. (2009). The Effect of Poverty on Student Achievement. Information Capsule. Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P., & Rothstein, H. R. (2010). A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Research synthesis methods, 1(2), 97-111. DOI:

Campbell, S. B. (1973). Mother-child interaction in reflective, impulsive, and hyperactive children. Developmental Psychology, 8(3), 341. DOI:

Cano, T., Perales, F., & Baxter, J. (2019). A matter of time: Father involvement and child cognitive outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 81(1), 164-184. DOI:

Carrillo, S., Bermúdez, M., Suárez, L., Gutiérrez, M. C., & Delgado, X. (2016). Father’s perceptions of their role and involvement in the family: A qualitative study in a Colombian sample. Revista Costarricense de Psicología, 35(2), 37-54. DOI:

Chung, G., Phillips, J., Jensen, T. M., & Lanier, P. (2020). Parental involvement and adolescents’ academic achievement: Latent profiles of mother and father warmth as a moderating influence. Family process, 59(2), 772-788. DOI:

Coles, R. L. (2015). Single father families: A review of the literature. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 7(2), 144-166. DOI:

Cooksey, E. C., & Fondell, M. M. (1996). Spending time with his kids: Effects of family structure on fathers’ and children’s lives. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 693-707. DOI:

Coverman, S., & Sheley, J. F. (1986). Change in men’s housework and child-care time, 1965-1975. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 413-422. DOI:

Day, R. D., & Padilla-Walker, L. M. (2009). Mother and father connectedness and involvement during early adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(6), 900. DOI:

Easterbrooks, M. A., & Goldberg, W. A. (1984). Toddler development in the family: Impact of father involvement and parenting characteristics. Child development, 740-752. DOI:

Epstein, J. L. (2007). Improving family and community involvement in secondary schools. Principal leadership, 8(2), 16-22. Retrieved from

Epstein, J. L., & Sheldon, S. B. (2002). Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), 308-318. DOI:

Fagan, J., & Palm, G. (2004). Fathers and early childhood programs. Cengage Learning.

Fan, X. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A growth modeling analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 70(1), 27-61. DOI:

Galindo, C., & Sheldon, S. B. (2012). School and home connections and children’s kindergarten achievement gains: The mediating role of family involvement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(1), 90-103. DOI:

Goldstein, H. (1984). The methodology of school comparisons. Oxford Review of Education, 10(1), 69-74. DOI:

Gottzén, L. (2011). Involved fatherhood? Exploring the educational work of middle-class men. Gender and Education, 23(5), 619-634. DOI:

Hastings, P. D., & Rubin, K. H. (1999). Predicting mothers’ beliefs about preschool-aged children’s social behavior: Evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects. Child Development, 70(3), 722-741. DOI:

Henry, J. B., Julion, W. A., Bounds, D. T., & Sumo, J. N. (2020). Fatherhood matters: An integrative review of fatherhood intervention research. The Journal of School Nursing, 36(1), 19-32. DOI:

Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental psychology, 45(3), 740. DOI:

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M., Sandler, H. M., Whetsel, D., Green, C. L., Wilkins, A. S., & Closson, K. (2005). Why do parents become involved? Research findings and implications. The elementary school journal, 106(2), 105-130. DOI:

Jeynes, W. (2012). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students. Urban education, 47(4), 706-742. DOI:

Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban education, 42(1), 82-110. DOI:

Jeynes, W. H. (2015). A meta-analysis: The relationship between father involvement and student academic achievement. Urban Education, 50(4), 387-423. DOI:

Kim, S., W. & Hill, N. E. (2015). Including fathers in the picture: A meta-analysis of parental involvement and students’ academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4), 919. DOI:

Krampe, E. M. (2009). When is the father really there? A conceptual reformulation of father presence. Journal of Family Issues, 30(7), 875-897 DOI:

Lamb, M. E. (1975). Fathers: Forgotten contributors to child development. Human development, 18(4), 245-266. DOI:

Lamb, M. E. (1980). The father’s role in the facilitation of infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 1(3), 140-149.<140::AID-IMHJ2280010303>3.0.CO;2-4 DOI:<140::AID-IMHJ2280010303>3.0.CO;2-4

Lamb, M. E. (2000). The history of research on father involvement: An overview. Marriage & Family Review, 29(2-3), 23-42. DOI:

Lamb, M. E., Pleck, J. H., & Levine, J. A. (1985). The role of the father in child development. In Advances in clinical child psychology (pp. 229-266). Springer, Boston, MA. DOI:

Lamb, M. E. (1987). Introduction: The emergent American father. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The father’s role: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 3–25). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Lewis, C., & Lamb, M. E. (2003). Fathers’ influences on children’s development: The evidence from two-parent families. European journal of psychology of education, 18(2), 211-228. DOI:

Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Sage Publications, Inc.

Miller, D. P., Thomas, M. M., Waller, M. R., Nepomnyaschy, L., & Emory, A. D. (2020). Father involvement and socioeconomic disparities in child academic outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 82(2), 515-533. DOI:

Palkovitz, R. (1985). Fathers’ birth attendance, early contact, and extended contact with their newborns: A critical review. Child development, 392-406. DOI:

Paquette, D. (2004). Theorizing the father-child relationship: Mechanisms and developmental outcomes. Human development, 47(4), 193-219. DOI:

Pedersen, F. A., Rubenstein, J. L., & Yarrow, L. J. (1979). Infant development in father-absent families. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 135(1), 51-61. DOI:

Pehlke II, T. A., Hennon, C. B., Radina, M. E., & Kuvalanka, K. A. (2009). Does father still know best? An inductive thematic analysis of popular TV sitcoms. Fathering, 7(2), 114. DOI:

Pleck, J. H., & Masciadrelli, B. P. (2004). Paternal Involvement by U.S. Residential Fathers: Levels, Sources, and Consequences. The role of the father in child development, 222–271.

Sarkadi, A., Kristiansson, R., Oberklaid, F., & Bremberg, S. (2008). Fathers’ involvement and children’s developmental outcomes: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Acta paediatrica, 97(2), 153-158. DOI:

Scheibling, C. (2020). Doing fatherhood online: Men’s parental identities, experiences, and ideologies on social media. Symbolic interaction, 43(3), 472-492. DOI:

Tan, E. T., & Goldberg, W. A. (2009). Parental school involvement in relation to children’s grades and adaptation to school. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(4), 442-453. DOI:

Trahan, M. H., & Cheung, M. (2016). Testing gender applicability of father involvement instruments. Social Work Research, 1-8. DOI:

Yogman, M. W., & Eppel, A. M. (2022). The role of fathers in child and family health. Engaged fatherhood for men, families and gender equality, 15-30. DOI:



How to Cite

Lazović, N., Krulj, J., Vidosavljević, S., & Marković, E. (2022). The Correlation Between Father Involvement and The Academic Achievement of Their Children: Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 10(3), 53–60.



Received 2022-09-01
Accepted 2022-11-17
Published 2022-12-20