teaching method, special education, content analysis, citation analysis


This study aims to reveal the situation and trends in teaching methods used in special education. Content analysis and citation analysis were used in this study as a research model. Published documents were obtained from Scopus by using the keywords ‘teaching method’ and ‘special education’ and a total number of 63 documents were obtained. The published documents were examined based on the previously determined content analysis criteria involving year of publication, name of the journals, authors, affiliations, countries, document type, subject area, keywords, language and citations. Data were analysed and provided with frequency and percentages. Results generally showed that there is an increase in the number of researches on teaching methods and special education throughout the years, most of the published documents were articles and from the areas of social sciences and psychology. All of the results were discussed with the relevant literature and recommendations for further research and practices were presented.


Download data is not yet available.


Agha, Z., & ELDaou, B. (2018). The role of the special education centers in developing students’ holistic wellbeing. Journal of Education and Special Education Technology, 4(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.18844/jeset.v4i1.4056

Argyropoulos, V., & Chamonikolaou, S. (2016). Investigating key functions of hand movements by individuals with visual impairment: Improving instructional practices in special education through research. Contemporary Educational Researches Journal, 6(1), 2-10. https://doi.org/10.18844/cerj.v6i1.485

Akçamete, A. G. (2015). Genel Eğitim Okullarında Özel Gereksinimi Olan Öğrenciler ve Özel Eğitim (2. Baskı). Ankara: Pegem Publishing. https://www.pegem.net/kitabevi/118696-Genel-Egitim-Okullarinda-Ozel-Gereksinimi-Olan-Ogrenciler-ve-Ozel-Egitim-kitabi.aspx

Baglama, B. (2017). Depression as an outcome or cause of sexual dysfunctions: A review study. Global Journal of Psychology Research: New Trends and Issues, 7(3), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjpr.v7i3.2857

Baglama, B., Demirok, M. S., & Serttas, Z. (2017). Examining the relationship between pre-service teachers' perceptions on individual differences and attitudes towards individuals with special needs. Journal of Educational Sciences & Psychology, 7(2). http://jesp.upg-ploiesti.ro/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&id=27:journal-vol-vii-lxix-no-22017&Itemid=16

Bakker, M., van den Heuvel‐Panhuizen, M., & Robitzsch, A. (2016). Effects of mathematics computer games on special education students' multiplicative reasoning ability. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(4), 633-648. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12249

Ball, S. J. (2012). Politics and policy making in education: explorations in sociology. London, UK: Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9780203808726

Barton, E. E., Reichow, B., Schnitz, A., Smith, I. C., & Sherlock, D. (2015). A systematic review of sensory-based treatments for children with disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 37, 64-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.11.006

Bateman, D. F., & Bateman, C. F. (2014). A principal's guide to special education. Council for Exceptional Children. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED455624.pdf

Bechtolt, S., McLaughlin, T. F., Derby, K. M., & Blecher, J. (2014). The effects of direct instruction flashcards and a model, lead, test procedure on letter recognition for three preschool students with developmental disabilities. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 5. https://oadd.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/41017_JoDD_20-1_v11f_5-15_Bechtolt_et_al.pdf

Bloh, C., Scagliotti, C., Baugh, S., Sheenan, M., Silas, S., & Zulli, N. (2017). Using Errorless Teaching to Teach Generalized Manding for Information Using “How?”. The Journal of Special Education Apprenticeship, 6(1), 4. https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/josea/vol6/iss1/4

Braga-Kenyon, P., Guilhardi, P., Lionello-Denolf, K. M., & Dube, W. V. (2017). Teaching visual conditional discriminations using errorless learning: The role of prompts requiring simple and conditional discriminative control. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 18(2), 180-194. https://doi.org/10.1080/15021149.2017.1309624

Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., & Chen, D. (2015). Adapting early childhood curricula for children with special needs. Pearson. https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/faculty_books/9/

Crystal, D. (2012). English as a global language. Cambridge university press. https://books.google.rs/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ecsLAQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Crystal,+D.+(2012).+English+as+a+global+language.+New+York,+NY:+Cambridge+University+Press.&ots=q4d_GoYVjJ&sig=J1uh6zQwr6_cjQknWlvfjeOvlvM&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Deepaen, W. (2016). Research and Development of the ASEAN Cartoon Lesson using the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Global Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(2), 104-110. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjflt.v6i2.715

Demirok, M. S., Baglama, B., & Besgul, M. (2015). A content analysis of the studies in special education area. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 2459-2467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.311

Demirok, M., Meral Karabacak, S., & Aysever, H. (2019). Fait tendencies regarding disability problems within the families. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 14(2), 303-312. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v14i2.3899

Diken, I. H. (2015). Erken cocukluk doneminde dogal ortamlarda ogretim. Ankara, Turkey: Egiten Kitap. https://www.pegem.net/kitabevi/186868-Erken-Cocukluk-Doneminde-Dogal-Ortamlarda-Ogretim-kitabi.aspx

Dogan, A., & Bengisoy, A. (2017). The Opinions of Teachers Working at Special Education Centers on Inclusive/Integration Education. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 12(3), 121-132. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v12i3.2440

Eratay, E., & Yeseriroglu, E. (2017). Effectiveness of individualized teaching materials on bricklaying skills prepared with direct teaching method. New Trends and Issues Proceedings on Humanities And Social Sciences, 4(1), 304-316. https://doi.org/10.18844/prosoc.v4i1.2270

Flanagan, R. (1995). A review of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC): Assessment consistent with the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Journal of School Psychology, 33(2), 177-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4405(95)00003-5

Friend, M., & Bursuck, M. D. (2018). Including Students with Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers: 8th Edition. Pearson Education Limited. https://www.amazon.com/Including-Students-Special-Needs-Practical/dp/0134754093

Fulcher, G. (2015). Disabling policies? A comparative approach to education policy and disability. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315668253

Gedrimas, K. (2015). Content Analysis of Qualitative Research 2011-2014 on Clients Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Occupational Therapy Practice, University of Puget Sound Unpublished Master Thesis, 19.8.2019. Retrieved from; https://soundideas.pugetsound.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1111&context=ms_occ_therapy

Harzing, A. W., & Alakangas, S. (2016). Google Scholar, Scopus and the Web of Science: a longitudinal and cross-disciplinary comparison. Scientometrics, 106(2), 787-804. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1798-9

Kukey, E., Gunes, H., & Genc, Z. (2019). Experiences of Classroom Teachers on the Use of Hands-On Material and Educational Software in Math Education. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 11(1), 74-86. https://doi.org/10.18844/wjet.v11i1.4010

Kurt, F., & Yavuz, F. (2018). An adaptation of traditional Turkish educational games to the teaching of vocabulary in EFL environment. International Journal of New Trends in Social Sciences, 2(2), 25-31. https://doi.org/10.18844/ijntss.v2i2.3952

Lynch, K., & Baker, J. (2005). Equality in education: An equality of condition perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 3(2), 131-164. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878505053298

Mitchell, D. (2014). Inclusive education is a multi-faceted concept. CEPS Journal, 5(1), p.9-30, 19.8.2019. Retrieved from; https://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2015/10611/pdf/cepsj_2015_1_Mitchell_Inclusive_Education.pdf

Moed, H. F. (2006). Citation analysis in research evaluation (Vol. 9). Springer Science & Business Media. https://books.google.rs/books?hl=en&lr=&id=D9SaJ6awy4gC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Moed,+H.+F.+(2006).+Citation+analysis+in+research+evaluation.+Springer+Science+%26+Business+Media.&ots=FHn_KsZPkV&sig=yr--_LaO4YTgDmFliv0eUpSkrzw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Moed%2C%20H.%20F.%20(2006).%20Citation%20analysis%20in%20research%20evaluation.%20Springer%20Science%20%26%20Business%20Media.&f=false

Odom, S. L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Horner, R. H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional children, 71(2), 137-148. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290507100201

Ozdamli, F. (2017). Attitudes and Opinions of Special Education Candidate Teachers Regarding Digital Technology. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 9(4), 191-200. https://doi.org/10.18844/wjet.v9i4.2581

Ozbal, A., & Eski, T. (2019). Students’ and teachers’opinions about ski lessons taught by using peer teaching model. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 14(2), 171–177. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v14i2.4136

Ozkan, T. & Uzunboylu, H. (2017). Review of Scopus databases published documents related to school administrators’ technology leadership strategies: a content analysis. Ponte, 73(9), 124–141. https://doi.org/10.21506/j.ponte.2017.9.40

Rajendran, V., Venkatagari, S., & Manchireddy, S. (2017). Teaching and Learning Methodologies for Improving Students’ Performance in Academics. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 9(4), 437-444. https://doi.org/10.18844/ijlt.v9i4.1843

Sivrikaya, T., & Yıkmış, A. (2016). Özel eğitim sınıflarında görev yapan özel eğitim mezunu olan ve olmayan öğretmenlerin öğretim süreciyle ilgili gereksinimleri [The instructional process requirements of special education graduate and non-graduate teachers working in special education classes]. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 16(4), 1984–2001. https://dergipark.org.tr/download/article-file/291954

Sorakin, Y., & Uzunboylu, H. (2017). Evaluation of content analysis of filial therapy studies. Ponte, 73(6), 334-344. https://doi.org/10.21506/j.ponte.2017.6.28

Sue Englert, C., Tarrant, K. L., & Mariage, T. V. (1992). Defining and redefining instructional practice in special education: Perspectives on good teaching. Teacher education and special education, 15(2), 62-86. https://doi.org/10.1177/088840649201500203

Tavşancil, E., & Aslan, E. (2001). Içerik analizi ve uygulama örnekleri [Content Analysis and Application Examples]. Istanbul. TR: Epsilon Yayinlari. http://www.epsilonyayinevi.com/kitap/icerik-analizi-ve-uygulama-ornekleri.html

Tekin-Iftar, E. & Kircaali-Iftar, G. (2013). Ozel egitimde yanlissiz ogretim yontemleri [Errorless teaching procedures in special education] (2nd ed.). Ankara, Turkey: Pegem Yayin Evi, https://www.pegem.net/kitabevi/207443-Ozel-Egitimde-Yanlissiz-Ogretim-Yontemleri-kitabi.aspx

Uzunboylu, H., Kınık, E., & Kanbul, S. (2017). An Analysis of Countries which have Integrated Coding into their Curricula and the Content Analysis of Academic Studies on Coding Training in Turkey. TEM Journal, 6(4), 783. https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM64-18

Wolery, M., Bailey, D. B., & Sugai, G. M. (1988). Effective teaching: Principles and procedures of applied behavior analysis with exceptional students (No. Sirsi) i9780205113088).http://www.sidalc.net/cgi-bin/wxis.exe/?IsisScript=SUV.xis&method=post&formato=2&cantidad=1&expresion=mfn=013732




How to Cite

Uzunboylu, H. ., & Özcan, D. . (2019). TEACHING METHODS USED IN SPECIAL EDUCATION: A CONTENT ANALYSIS STUDY. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 7(2), 99–107. https://doi.org/10.5937/IJCRSEE1902099U