Students’ Perceptions of Teacher Support, and Their School and Life Satisfaction Before and After The COVID-19 Pandemic




COVID–19, life satisfaction, school satisfaction, teacher support


In an attempt to examine the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic affected the lives of primary school students, a longitudinal study was conducted focused on students’ school satisfaction and life satisfaction, and their perception of the support provided by their teachers. The study was conducted in two waves, within the period of two years – the first one before the pandemic, and the second one upon its end, that is, when the students returned to classes in school. The study encompassed 548 students in total, attending third to eighth grades of primary school in the Republic of Croatia. 267 students participated in both waves of the study. The quantitative approach was applied. The results revealed statistically significant differences in students’ perception of teacher support, and the level of their school satisfaction and life satisfaction. Students seem to have been more satisfied with school, life and teacher support before the pandemic. An additional analysis of the differences between generations of students (2019 and 2021) was conducted. Although the younger generation seem to give a lower rating to all the examined variables, in comparison to the generation of 2019, the results reveal statistically significant differences only in life satisfaction (grades 4, 5 and 7) and teacher support (grades 5 and 6). The limitations of the study, as well as implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


Achkar, A. M., Leme, V. B., Soares, A. B., & Yunes, M. A. (2019). Life satisfaction and academic performance of elementary school students. Psico-USF, Bragança Paulista, 24(2), 323-335.

Alder, N. (2002). Interpretations of the meaning of care: Creating caring relationships in urban middle school classrooms. Urban Education, 37(2), 241-266.

Alqurashi, E. (2019). Predicting student satisfaction and perceived learning within online learning environments. Distance Education, 40(1), 133-148.

Baber, H. (2020). Determinants of students’ perceived learning outcome and satisfaction in online learning during the pandemic of COVID19. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 7(3), 285-292.

Baker, J. A. (1998). The social context of school satisfaction among urban, low-Income, African-American students. School Psychology Quarterly, 13(1), 25-44.

Baker, J. A., Dilly, L. J., Aupperlee, J. L., & Patil, S. A. (2003). The developmental context of school satisfaction: Schools as psychologically healthy environments. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 206-221.

Blahušiaková, M., Mokošová, D., & Šoltés, E. (2021). Education in online environment from students’ and teachers’ perspective. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 9(2), 203-226.

Bubić, A., & Goreta, I. (2015). Akademske i socijalne odrednice općeg zadovoljstva školom [The role of academic and social factors in explaining school satisfaction]. Psihologijske teme, 24(3), 473-493. Retrieved from

Buehler, C., Fletcher , A. C., Johnston, C., & Weymouth, B. B. (2015). Perceptions of school experiences during the first semester of middle school. The School Community Journal, 25(2), 55–83., 25(2), 55-83. Retrieved from

Carson, D. K., & Bittner, M. T. (1994). Temperament and school-aged children’s coping abilities and responses to stress. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(3), 289-302.

Danielsen, A. G., Breivik, K., & Wold, B. (2011). Do Perceived Academic Competence and School Satisfaction Mediate the Relationships Between Perceived Support Provided by Teachers and Classmates, and Academic Initiative? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 55(1), 379-401.

Danielsen, A. G., Samdal, O., Hetland, J., & Wold, B. (2009). School-related social support and students’ perceived life satisfaction. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 303-318.

Epstein, J., & McPartland, J. (1976). The concept and measurement of the quality of school life. American Educational Research Journal, 13(1), 15-30.

Gempp, R., & González-Carrasco, M. (2021). Peer relatedness, school satisfaction, and life satisfaction in early adolescence: A non-recursive model. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 641714.

Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Characteristics of adolescents who report very high life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 311-319.

Glazier, R. A., & Harris, H. S. (2021). Instructor presence and student satisfaction across modalities: survey data on student preferences in online and on-campus courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 22(3), 77-98.

Goodenow, C., & Grady, K. E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends’ values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 62(1), 60-71.

Guess, P. E., & McCane-Bowling, S. J. (2016). Teacher support and life satisfaction: An investigation with urban, middle school students. Education and Urban Society, 48(1), 30-47.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Havik, T., & Westergård, E. (2020). Do teachers matter? Students’ perceptions of classroom interactions and student engagement. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 64(4), 488-507.

Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo (HZJZ), [Croatian Institute of Public Health]. (2021). Postupanje s bliskim kontaktima u odgojno-obrazovnim ustanovama: mjera zdravstvenog nadzora [Procedure for close contacts in educational institutions: a health monitoring measure]: Retrieved from

Huebner, E. S. (1991a). Correlates of life satisfaction in children. School Psychology Quarterly, 6(2), 103-111.

Huebner, E. S. (1991b). Initial development of the Student’s Life satisfaction Scale. School Psychology International, 12(3), 231-240.

Huebner, E. S. (2011). Revised manual for the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina.

Huebner, E. S., Ash, C., & Laughlin, J. (2001). Life experiences, locus of control, and school satisfaction in adolescence. Social Indicators Research, 55, 167-183.

Hui, E. K., & Sun, R. C. (2010). Chinese children’s perceived school satisfaction: The role of contextual and intrapersonal factors. Educational Psychology, 30(2), 155-172.

Klapproth, F., Federkeil, F., Heinschke, F., & Jungmann, T. (2020). Teachers’ experiences of stress and their coping strategies during COVID-19 induced distance teaching. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 4(4), 444-452.

Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262-273.

Koludrović, M., & Radnić, I. (2013). Doprinos nekih osobnih i socijalnih čimbenika u objašnjenju školskog uspjeha u ranoj adolescenciji [The contribution of some personal and social factors in explaining school achievement in early adolescence]. Pedagogijska istraživanja, 10(1), 65-79. Retrieved from

Kuo, Y. C., Walker, A. E., Schroder, K. E., & Belland, B. R. (2014). Interaction, Internet self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning as predictors of student satisfaction in online education courses. Educational Psychology, Counseling, and Special Education, 20, 35-50.

Lemay, D. J., Bazelais, P., & Doleck, T. (2021). Transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 4, 100130.

Magson, N. R., Freeman, J. Y., Rapee, R. M., Richardson, C. E., Oar, E. L., & Fardouly, J. (2021). Risk and protective factors for prospective changes in adolescent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(1), 44-57.

Malecki, C., & Demaray, M. (2002). Measuring perceived social support: Development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). Psychology in the Schools, 39(1), 1–18.

Malecki, C., Demaray, M., & Elliott, S. (2014). A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University.

Mali, D., & Lim, H. (2021). How do students perceive face-to-face/blended learning as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic? The International Journal of Management Education, 19(3), 100552.

Nikčević-Milković, A., Jerković, A., & Biljan, E. (2014). Povezanost komponenti samoregulacije učenja sa školskim uspjehom i zadovoljstvom školom kod učenika osnovnoškolske dobi [Connection components of self-regulated learning and academic success and satisfaction with school in primary school pupils]. Napredak, 154(4), 375-398. Retrieved from

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619.

Pavot, W., Diener, E., Colvin, R. C., & Ed Sandvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the satisfaction with life scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 149-161.

Perić, B. (2010). Škola u očima učenika [School in the eyes of students]. Školski vjesnik: časopis za pedagogijsku teoriju i praksu, 59(1), 127-146. Retrieved from

Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A Literature Review on Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Teaching and Learning. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 133–141.

Rathmann, K., Herke, M. G., Hurrelmann, K., & Richter, M. (2018). Perceived class climate and school-aged children’s life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms. PLoS ONE, 13(2), e0189335.

Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 700-712.

Salihagic, S., & Akay, C. (2022). Perception, Engagement and Satisfaction of English Language Learners with Online Learning During Covid-19 Pandemic. European Journal of Education, 5(2), 35-50.

Seligson, J., Huebner, E., & Valois, R. (2003). Preliminary validation of the the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Social Indicators Research, 61(2), 121–145.

Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765–781.

Sokal, L., Trudel, L. E., & Babb, J. (2020). Canadian teachers’ attitudes toward change, efficacy, and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1, 100016.

Son, J.-B. (2018). Technology in English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching. U J. I. Liontas, The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (1st ed.) (pp. 1-7). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Spiteri, M., & Chang Rundgren , S.-N. (2020). Literature review on the factors affecting primary teachers’ use of digital technology. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 25(1), 115–128.

Steinmayr, R., Paschke, P., & Wirthwein, L. (2022). Elementary school students’ subjective well-being before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study. Journal of Happiness Studies, 23(6), 2985–3005.

Stone, C., & Springer, M. (2019). Interactivity, connectedness and ‘teacher-presence’: Engaging and retaining students online. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 59(2), 146-169. Retrieved from

Suldo, S., Bateman, L., & Gelley, C. (2014). Understanding and promoting school satisfaction in children and adolescents. In M. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. Huerbner, Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools (pp. 365-380). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

van der Spoel, I., Noroozi, O., Schuurink, E., & van Ginkel, S. (2020). Teachers’ online teaching expectations and experiences during the Covid19-pandemic in the Netherlands. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 623-638.

Vogel, M., Rees, C. E., McCuddy, T., & Carson, D. C. (2015). The highs that bind: School context, social status and marijuana use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(5), 1153-1164.

Wang, M.-T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83(3), 877-895.

Wang, M.-T., Selman, R. L., Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2010). A tobit regression analysis of the covariation between middle school students’ perceived school climate and behavioral problems. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(2), 274-286.

World Health Organization. (2021, May). Third high-level meeting on schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic: Virtual meeting hosted by the WHO Regional Office for Europe in partnership with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): Retrieved from




How to Cite

Vidić, T., Đuranović, M., & Klasnić, I. (2023). Students’ Perceptions of Teacher Support, and Their School and Life Satisfaction Before and After The COVID-19 Pandemic . International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 11(1), 15–25.



Received 2023-03-01
Accepted 2023-04-05
Published 2023-04-20