The Influence of Organizational Factors on the School’s Achievements




organizational factors, school’s achievements, primary education, outcome knowledge


The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the most significant organizational factors on primary school achievements, with a note that the achievement of the school is expressed through the quality of outcome knowledge. The research was conducted on a sample of 460 employees, from 21 primary schools, of which 439 are professionals and 21 are principals in the South Bačka County, Republic of Serbia. The collected data were processed using the Gretl software and AMOS for modelling structural equations. More precisely, the research is based on the application of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. A neural network based on a standard multilayer perceptron model was used in the paper to test the validity of the obtained results of the AMOS model. The results of the research show that school management is the most important factor in school achievement and that this influence is most pronounced through teaching staff and school infrastructure. The results, also show that teachers’ competencies have the strongest direct influence on the quality of outcome knowledge. The results obtained indicate that decision-makers and creators of social policies must pay special attention to the selection of school principals as well as their professional education, while school principals to the selection of teachers. Future researchers are recommended to use the Sobel test to precisely determine the indirect influences of school management on school achievement.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmadi, A., Noetel, M., Parker, P., Ryan, R. M., Ntoumanis, N., Reeve, J., ... & Lonsdale, C. (2023). A classification system for teachers’ motivational behaviors recommended in self-determination theory interventions. Journal of Educational Psychology. DOI:

Alfoudari, A. M., Durugbo, C. M., & Aldhmour, F. M. (2023). Exploring quality attributes of smart classrooms from the perspectives of academics. Education and Information Technologies, 1-43. DOI:

Anselmus Dami, Z., Budi Wiyono, B., Imron, A., Burhanuddin, B., Supriyanto, A., & Daliman, M. (2022). Principal self-efficacy for instructional leadership in the perspective of principal strengthening training: work engagement, job satisfaction and motivation to leave. Cogent Education, 9(1), 2064407. DOI:

Aragon-Sanchez, A., Barba-Aragón, I., & Sanz-Valle, R. (2003). Effects of Training on Business Results. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 956-980. DOI:

Baketa, N., Dedic, Z. R., & Jokic, B. (2020). All Are Equal, But Some Are More Equal Than Others: Secondary School Principals’ Perspectives on the State Matura Exams and Issues of Equity and Equality of Access to Tertiary Education for Pupils from Grammar Schools and VET in Croatia. Revija za sociologiju, 50(2), 223-251. DOI:

Barak, M., & Levenberg, A. (2016). A model of flexible thinking in contemporary education. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 74-85. DOI:

Blömeke, S., Jentsch, A., Ross, N., Kaiser, G., & König, J. (2022). Opening up the black box: Teacher competence, instructional quality, and students’ learning progress. Learning and Instruction, 79, 101600. DOI:

Bouslama, F., Lansari, A., Al-Rawi, A. M., & Abonamah, A. A. (2003). A Novel Outcome-Based Educational Model and its Effect on Student Learning, Curriculum Development, and Assessment. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 2, 203-214. DOI:

Brinson, J. R. (2015). Learning Outcome Achievement in Non-Traditional (Virtual and Remote) Versus Traditional (Hands-On) Laboratories: A Review of the Empirical Research. Computers & Education, 87, 218-237. DOI:

Brooker, A., Corrin, L., De Barba, P., Lodge, J., & Kennedy, G. (2018). A tale of two MOOCs: How student motivation and participation predict learning outcomes in different MOOCs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(1). DOI:

Dadmand, F., & Pooya, A. (2023). Schools budgeting according to the condition of equipment and buildings under different scenarios changing the number of students using the system dynamics. Governmental Accounting, 9(2), 121-140.

Dai, Z., Sun, C., Zhao, L., & Zhu, X. (2023). The Effect of Smart Classrooms on Project-Based Learning: A Study Based on Video Interaction Analysis. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-14. DOI:

Dimitriadou, E., & Lanitis, A. (2023). A critical evaluation, challenges, and future perspectives of using artificial intelligence and emerging technologies in smart classrooms. Smart Learning Environments, 10(1), 1-26. DOI:

Dou, D., Devos, G., & Valcke M. (2017). The Relationships Between School Autonomy Gap, Principal Leadership, Teachers’ Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 45(6), 959-977. DOI:

Doyer, I., & Bean, W. L. (2023). As easy as OEE: enabling productivity improvement in schools by using overall equipment effectiveness as framework for classroom data analysis. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma. DOI:

Fuadi, A., Nasution, W. N., & Wijaya, C. (2023). Management of Teacher Professionalism Development: A Multi-Site Study of State Madrasah Aliyah in Langkat Regency. Tafkir: Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Education, 4(1), 180-199. DOI:

Fullan, M. (2011). The Six Secrets of Change, What the Best Leaders do to Help. Their Organizations Survive and the Live. San Francisco; Jossey-Bass.

García-Tudela, P. A., Prendes-Espinosa, P., & Solano-Fernández, I. M. (2023). The Spanish experience of future classrooms as a possibility of smart learning environments. Heliyon, 9(8). DOI:

Gentrup, S., Lorenz, G., Kristen, C., & Kogan, I. (2020). Self-fulfilling prophecies in the classroom: Teacher expectations, teacher feedback and student achievement. Learning and Instruction, 66, 101296. DOI:

Girelli, L., Alivernini, F., Lucidi, F., Cozzolino, M., Savarese, G., Sibilio, M., & Salvatore, S. (2018). Autonomy supportive contexts, autonomous motivation, and self-efficacy predict academic adjustment of first-year university students. In Frontiers in Education, 3. DOI:

Gupta, A., Mazumdar, B. D., Mishra, M., Shinde, P. P., Srivastava, S., & Deepak, A. (2023). Role of cloud computing in management and education. Materials Today: Proceedings, 80, 3726-3729. DOI:

Gutiérrez, M., & Tomás, J. M. (2019). The role of perceived autonomy support in predicting university students’ academic success mediated by academic self-efficacy and school engagement. Educational Psychology, 39(6), 729-748. DOI:

Harden, R. M. (2002). Learning Outcomes and Instructional Objectives: Is There a Difference? Medical teacher, 24(2), 151-155. DOI:

Hayat, A. A., Shateri, K., Amini, M., & Shokrpour, N. (2020). Relationships between academic self-efficacy, learning-related emotions, and metacognitive learning strategies with academic performance in medical students: a structural equation model. BMC medical education, 20(1), 1-11. DOI:

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Abingdon: Routledge. DOI:

Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers Make a Difference, What is the research evidence? Working paper.

Ho, H. C., Poon, K. T., Chan, K. K. S., Cheung, S. K., Datu, J. A. D., & Tse, C. Y. A. (2023). Promoting preservice teachers’ psychological and pedagogical competencies for online learning and teaching: The TEACH program. Computers & Education, 195, 104725. DOI:

Hussey, T., & Smith, P. (2002). The Trouble with Learning Outcomes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 3(3), 220-233. DOI:

Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D.W., Maruyama, G., Johnson, R., & Nelson, D. (1981). Effects of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Goal Structures on Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 47-62. DOI:

Johnston, O., Wildy, H., & Shand, J. (2023). A grounded theory about how teachers communicated high expectations to their secondary school students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1-25. DOI:

Leroy, N., & Bressoux, P. (2016). Does amotivation matter more than motivation in predicting mathematics learning gains? A longitudinal study of sixth-grade students in France. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 44, 41-53. DOI:

Lo, K. W., Ngai, G., Chan, S. C., & Kwan, K. P. (2022). How students’ motivation and learning experience affect their service-learning outcomes: A structural equation modeling analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 13, 825902. DOI:

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hoppkins, D. (2008). Seven Strong Claims About Successful. School Leadership and Management, 28(1), 27-42. DOI:

Karakose, T., Polat, H., Yirci, R., Tülübaş, T., Papadakis, S., Ozdemir, T. Y., & Demirkol, M. (2023). Assessment of the relationships between prospective mathematics teachers’ classroom management anxiety, academic self-efficacy beliefs, academic amotivation and attitudes toward the teaching profession using structural equation modelling. Mathematics, 11(2), 449. DOI:

Nonaka, I. (1994). A Dynamic Theory of Organizations Knowledge Creation. Organization science, 5(1), 14-37 DOI:

Park, S., & Weng, W. (2020). The relationship between ICT-related factors and student academic achievement and the moderating effect of country economic index across 39 countries. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 1-15.

Pribudhiana, R., Bin Don, Y., & Bin Yusof, M. R. (2021). Determining the Influence of Teacher Quality toward Teacher Readiness in Implementing Indonesian Education Policy. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 93, 373-390. DOI:

Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T.A., From, J., & Wohlgennant, I. (2020). A Systematic Review of Immersive Virtual Reality Applications for Higher Education: Design Elements, Lessons Learned, and Research Agenda. Computers & Education 147. DOI:

Robinson, C. D. (2022). A framework for motivating teacher-student relationships. Educational Psychology Review, 34(4), 2061-2094. DOI:

Rusyn, H. A., Stynska, V., Matsuk, L., Korostelova, Y. Y., & Stetsyk, S. P. (2021). Efficiency of the project method in the development of professional competencies in future teachers. Revista de la Universidad del Zulia, 12(35), 303-321. DOI:

Seijts, G. H., Latham, G. P., & Woodwark, M. (2013). Learning goals: A qualitative and quantitative review. New developments in goal setting and task performance, 195-212.

Tang, K. N. (2020). The importance of soft skills acquisition by teachers in higher education institutions. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 41(1), 22-27. DOI:

Tella, A. (2007). The Impact of Motivation on Student’s Academic Achievement and Learning Outcomes in Mathematics Among Secondary School Students in Nigeria. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 3(2), 149-156. DOI:

Uyen, V.T.N., & Thu, P.X. (2023). The Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method: Selection of Support Equipment for Classroom Instructors. Applied Engineering Letters, 8(4),148-157. DOI:

Wargocki, P., & Wyon, D. P. (2017). Ten questions concerning thermal and indoor air quality effects on the performance of office work and schoolwork. Building and Environment, 112, 359-366. DOI:

West-Burnham, J. (1997). Managing Quality in Schools. London: Pearson Education Limited.

Young, M. R., Klemz, B. R., & Murphy, J. W. (2003). Enhancing Learning Outcomes: The Effects of Instructional Technology, Learning Styles, Instructional Methods, and Student Behavior. Journal of Marketing Education, 25(2), 130-142. DOI:

Yu, Z., Gao, M., & Wang, L. (2021). The effect of educational games on learning outcomes, student motivation, engagement and satisfaction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 59(3), 522-546. DOI:




How to Cite

Radivojević, N., Pajić, V., & Osmanović, S. (2024). The Influence of Organizational Factors on the School’s Achievements. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 12(1), 169–183.



Received 2023-12-21
Accepted 2024-04-10
Published 2024-04-24