DEVIANT ONLINE BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENT AND YOUTH CIRCLES: IN SEARCH OF A RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL
Keywords:deviant online behavior, minors, young adults, social networks, risk factors, vulnerability, resources, risk assessment
The authors made an attempt to describe the problem of developing the concept of risk assessment of deviant online behavior of minors and young adults in social networks. The article looks into the psychological consequences of banalizing of the internet, analysis possibilities for offline and online behavior. Approaches for risk factors assessment of deviant behavior in real life are described: the qualitative (clinical), statistical (actuarial) and structured. The article systemizes the studies of risk factors, vulnerability, and deviant patterns in the context of phenomena such as aggressive, asocial, auto-aggressive, self-mutilating, suicidal, risk-taking and victim online behavior. Approaches and models of online deviant behavior are discussed; an attempt is made to build a structured model of risk assessment of deviant patterns of online behavior in the context of the cultural historical concept. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a hypothetical set of group, interindividual and intraindividual constructs is formulated, the combination of online and offline risk factors produces a model for risk assessment of deviant behavior. The article is written as part of the research project “Developing the profiling model of online behavior of minors and young adults in social networks” which was initiated by the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education.
Attrill, A. (2016). The Role of Culture in Online Behaviour. In Applied Cyberpsychology (pp. 39-57). Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137517036_3
Aysina R. M., Nesterova A. A. (2019). Cyber socialization of youth in the information and communication space of the modern world: effects and risks. Sotsial’naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo [Social Psychology and Society], (10)4, 42—57. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.). https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2019100404
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Barak, A., & Miron, O. (2005). Writing characteristics of suicidal people on the Internet: A psychological investigation of emerging social environments. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35(5), 507-524. https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.2005.35.5.507
Biddle, L., Derges, J., Goldsmith, C., Donovan, J. L., & Gunnell, D. (2018). Using the internet for suicide-related purposes: Contrasting findings from young people in the community and self-harm patients admitted to hospital. PLoS one, 13(5), e0197712. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197712
Bocij, P., & McFarlane, L. (2003). Cyberstalking: The technology of hate. The Police Journal, 76(3), 204-221. https://doi.org/10.1350/pojo.220.127.116.1142
Bogdanovich, N. V., & Delibalt, V. V. (2020). Prevention of Deviant Behavior of Children and Adolescents as a Field of Activity of a Psychologist in Educational Institutions. Psychology and Law, 10(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2020100201
Bondarenko, S. V. (2004). The Social Make-up of Virtual Communities. Rostov-Don: Izdatel’stvo RGU = Rostov State University Publishing.
Brodovskaya, E. V., Dombrovskaya, A. Yu. & Ivanov, I.S. (2016). Alteration in Online Behavior Strategies of Russian Internet Audience: Results of Comparative Cluster Analysis (2012-2014). Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economical and Social Changes, 3, 173-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.14515/monitoring.2016.3.10
Buckels, E. E., Trapnell, P. D. & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Trolls just want to have fun [Electronic version]. Personality and Individual Differences. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.016
Bulgakova, M. V., Dozortseva, E. G., Dreyzin, A. A., Oshevskiy, D. S., Polyatykin, S. A., Soldatova, T. E. (2009). A Guide on using the technique “Risks and opportunities assessment” (ROA) in counseling for juvenile offenders. Moscow: Russian Charitable Fund “Say No to Alcohol and Drugs”.
Chitoşcă, M. I. (2006). The Internet as a socializing agent of the M Generation. Journal of Social Informatics, 5, 3—21. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.101.4349&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Daine, K., Hawton, K., Singaravelu, V., Stewart, A., Simkin, S. & Montgomery, P. (2013). The power of the web: a systematic review of studies of the influence of the internet on self-harm and suicide in young people. PloS one, 8(10), 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077555
Delaney, T., & Madigan, T. (2017). Friendship and Happiness: And the Connection Between the Two. Jefferson, North Carolina, USA: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
Delibalt, V. V., Degtyaryov, A. V., Dozortseva, E. G., Chirkina, R. V., Dvoryanchikov, N. V., & Pimonov et al. (2017). Evaluation of cognitive functions, personality and regulatory sphere in minors with deviant and delinquent behavior within the authority of the psychological, medical and educational committee. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 5(2), 107-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/IJCRSEE1702107D
Dolan, M., & Doyle, M. (2000). Violence risk prediction: Clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the Psychopathy Checklist. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(4), 303-311. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.4.303
Dozortseva, E. G., & Medvedeva, A. S. (2019). Sexual online grooming as an object of psychological research. Psychology and Law, 9(2), 250-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2019090217
Dozortseva, E. G., Badmayeva, V. D., Oshevskiy, D. S. & Alexandrova, N. A. (2011). The Assessment of Risk of Delinquent Acts in Children and Adolescents. A Guideline. Moscow: Federal State Budgetary Institution “V. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.
Dozortseva, E. G., Oshevsky, D. S., & Syrokvashina, K. V. (2020). Psychological, Social and Informational Aspects of Attacks by Minors on Educational Institutions. Psychology and Law, 10(2), 98. http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2020100208
Duggan, M. (2014). Online harassment. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2014/10/22/part-1-experiencing-online-harassment/
Durkee, T., Hadlaczky, G., Westerlund, M., & Carli, V. (2011). Internet pathways in suicidality: a review of the evidence. International journal of environmental research and public health, 8(10), 3938-3952. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8103938
Emelin, V. A., & Tkhostov, A. (2015). Deformation of the chronotope in conditions of sociocultural acceleration. Voprosy filosofii, 2, 15-24.
Emelin, V. A., & Tkhostov, A. (2013). The Babylonian network: the erosion of truth and the diffusion of identity in the Internet space. Voprosy filosofii, 1, 74-84.
Emelin, V. A., & Tkhostov, A. (2016). The temptations and pitfalls of temporal identity. Voprosy filosofii, 8, 115—125.
Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T. M. (1963). Some Consequences of De-individuation in a Group. In N. J. Smelser & W. T. Smelser (Eds.), Personality and social systems (p. 125–135). John Wiley & Sons Inc. https://doi.org/10.1037/11302-012
Global digital report 2019 – We are social. Retrieved from: https://wearesocial.com/global-digital-report-2019
Helsper, E. J. (2014). Offline social identity and online chat partner selection. Information, Communication & Society, 17(6), 695-715. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.810767
Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2014). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Corwin Press.
Hoge, R. D., & Andrews, D. A. (2002). The youth level of service/case management inventory manual and scoring key. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
Hoge, R. D. , & Andrews, D. A. , & Leschied, A. W. (2002). The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
Internet in Russia: the dynamics of invasion. Winter 2017–2018 [Electronic version]. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from: https://fom.ru/SMI-i-internet/13999
Java, A., Song, X., Finin, T., & Tseng, B. (2007, August). Why we twitter: understanding microblogging usage and communities. In Proceedings of the 9th WebKDD and 1st SNA-KDD 2007 workshop on Web mining and social network analysis (pp. 56-65). https://doi.org/10.1145/1348549.1348556
John, A., Glendenning, A. C., Marchant, A., Montgomery, P., Stewart, A., Wood, S., ... & Hawton, K. (2018). Self-harm, suicidal behaviours, and cyberbullying in children and young people: Systematic review. Journal of medical internet research, 20(4), e129. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.9044
Joinson, A. N. (2007). Causes and implications of disinhibited behavior on the Internet. In: J. Gackenbach (ed.). Psychology and the Internet. Boston, MA: Academic Press, pp. 43-60.
Keith, S., & Martin, M. E. (2005). Cyber-Bullying: creating a culture. Reclaiming children and youth, The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 134(3), 224-228. Retrieved from: https://intranet.newriver.edu/images/stories/library/stennett_psychology_articles/Cyber-Bullying%20-%20Creating%20a%20Culture%20of%20Respect%20in%20a%20Cyber%20World.pdf
Kende, A., Ujhelyi, A., Joinson, A. & Greitemeyer, T. (2015). Putting the social (psychology) into social media. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 277–278. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2097
Khlomov, K. D., Davydov, D. G., & Bochaver, A. A. (2019). Cyberbullying in the Experience of Russian Teenagers. Psychology and Law, 9(2), 276-295. https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2019090219
Kiryukhina, D. V. (2019). Кибербуллинг среди молодых пользователей социальных сетей [Cyberbullying among young users of social networks]. Современная зарубежная психология, 8(3), 53-59. https://doi.org/10.17759/jmfp.2019080306
Korchagin, N. Y., Dvoryanchikov, N. V., Antonov, O. Y., & Shulga, T. I. (2020). Specifics of Psychological Impact Strategies for Persons Committing Sexual Crimes Against Minors through the Internet. Psychology and Law, 10(2), 111-126. https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2020100209
Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P., & Agatston, P. W. (2012). Cyberbullying: Bullying in the digital age. John Wiley & Sons.
Kurysheva, O. V. (2003). The Idea of Relationship between Real and Ideal Forms in the Tradition of Cultural and Historical Development Theory. Vestnik Volgogradskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta = Herald of Volgograd State University, Series 7: Philosophy. Sociology and social technologies, 3(3), 131-137.
Lebon, G. (2011). Psychology of peoples and masses. Moscow: Academic project.
Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzing, A. & Őlafsson, K. (2011). EU kids online II: final report 2011. EU Kids Online. London: London School of Economic and Political Science.
Lowry, P. B., Zhang, J., Wang, C., & Siponen, M. (2016). Why do adults engage in cyberbullying on social media? An integration of online disinhibition and deindividuation effects with the social structure and social learning model. Information Systems Research, 27(4), 962-986. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2016.0671
Luchinkina, A.I. & Luchinkina, I.S. (2019). The Specifics of Communicational Behavior in Cyberspace in Adolescents with Various Types of Suicidal Behavior. Rossiyskiy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal/Psychology in Russia, 16(1), 128-143. https://doi.org/10.21702/rpj.2019.1.6
Luchinkina, A.I. (2015). Model of Online Socializing of Personality. Informational and psychological personal security in cyberspace, Simferopol, 6-13.
Madle, G., Berger, A., Cognat, S., Menna, S., & Kostkova, P. (2009). User information seeking behaviour: Perceptions and reality. An evaluation of the WHO Labresources Internet portal. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 34(1), 30-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/17538150902779204
Makushkin E. V., Dozortseva E. G., Badmayeva V. D., Oshevskiy D. S. (2009) Clinical and psychological methods for risk assessment of aggressive acts by minors: an analytical review. // Federal State Budgetary Institution “V. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, P. 1-29.
Marchant, A., Hawton, K., Stewart, A., Montgomery, P., Singaravelu, V., Lloyd, K., ... & John, A. (2017). A systematic review of the relationship between internet use, self-harm and suicidal behaviour in young people: The good, the bad and the unknown. PloS one, 12(8), e0181722. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181722
Martínez-Ferrer, B., Moreno, D., & Musitu, G. (2018). Are adolescents engaged in the problematic use of social networking sites more involved in peer aggression and victimization?. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 801. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00801
Marzouki, Y. (2016). La conscience collective virtuelle: un nouveau paradigme des comportements collectifs en ligne. Les représentations sociales. Théories, méthodes et applications. Louvain-la-Neuve: De Boeck Supérieur, 413-415.
McMurran, M. (1996). Substance use and delinquency. Clinical approaches to working with young offenders, 1, 209-235.
Mededovic, J. & Petrovic, B. (2015). The Dark tetrad. Journal of Individual Differences, 36(4), 228-236. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000179
Medvedeva, A. S., & Dozortseva, E. G. (2019). Features of online grooming as a form of sexual exploitation of minors (based on the analysis of communication between adults and children in the Internet). Psychology and Law, 9(4), 161-173. https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2019090412
Monahan, J., & Steadman, H. J. (Eds.). (1996). Violence and mental disorder: Developments in risk assessment. University of Chicago Press.
Moor, L., & Anderson, J. R. (2019). A systematic literature review of the relationship between dark personality traits and antisocial online behaviours. Personality and individual differences, 144, 40-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.02.027
Moreno, M. A., Ton, A., Selkie, E., & Evans, Y. (2016). Secret society 123: Understanding the language of self-harm on Instagram. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(1), 78-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.09.015
Muller, R. D., Skues, J. L., & Wise, L. Z. (2017). Cyberbullying in Australian primary schools: How victims differ in attachment, locus of control, self-esteem, and coping styles compared to non-victims. Journal of psychologists and counsellors in schools, 27(1), 85-104. https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2016.5
Osavolyuk, E.Yu., Kurginyan, S.S. (2018) Cognitive Flexibility of Personality: Theory, Measurement, Practice. Psychology, 15(1), 128–144. https://doi.org/10.17323/1813-8918-2018-1-128-144
Owens, L., Shute, R., & Slee, P. (2000). I’m in and you’re out: Explanations for teenage girls indirect aggression. Psychology, Evolution & Gender, 2(1), 19-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616660050082906
Panicheva, P., Ledovaya, Y., & Bogolyubova, O. (2016, November). Lexical, morphological and semantic correlates of the dark triad personality traits in Russian Facebook texts. In 2016 IEEE artificial intelligence and natural language conference (AINL) (pp. 1-8). IEEE. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7891860
Pelaprat, E., & Brown, B. (2012). Reciprocity: Understanding online social relations. First Monday, 17(10). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v17i10.3324
Pellegrini, A. D., & Bartini, M. (2001). Dominance in early adolescent boys: Affiliative and aggressive dimensions and possible functions. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47(1), 142–163. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/23093691
Pleshakov, V.A. (2012). Cyber Socializing of Humans: From Homo Sapiens to Homo Cyberus Moscow: Prometey.
Polskaya, N. A., & Yakubovskaya, D. K. (2019). The Impact of Social Media Platforms on Self-Injurious Behavior in Adolescents. Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 27(3), 171. Retrieved from: https://psyjournals.ru/files/108483/cpp_2019_n3.pdf#page=172
Pronk, R. E., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2010). It’s “Mean,” But What Does It Mean to Adolescents? Relational Aggression Described by Victims, Aggressors, and Their Peers. Journal of Adolescent Research, 25(2), 175–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558409350504
Rubtsova, O. V., Panfilova, A. S., & Smirnova, V. K. (2018). Research on Relationship between Personality Traits and Online Behaviour in Adolescents (With VKontakte Social Media as an Example). Psychological Science and Education, 3, 54-66. https://doi.org/10.17759/pse.2018230112
Rubtsova, O. V. (2019). Digital Media as a New Means of Mediation (Part One). Cultural-Historical Psychology, 15(3), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.17759/chp.2019150312
Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. The British journal of psychiatry, 147(6), 598-611. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.147.6.598
Sanders, J., Smith, P. K., & Cillessen, A. (2009, August). Cyberbullies: Their motives, characteristics, and types of bullying. In fourteenth European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Vilnius, Lithuania.
Sarna, A. Ya.(2014). Content Analysis in Studying the New Media. Vestnik Volgogradskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta/Herald of Volgograd State University, Series 7: Philosophy. Sociology and Social Technologies, 23(3), 88-98.
Schumann, S., & Klein, O. (2015). Substitute or stepping stone? Assessing the impact of low-threshold online collective actions on offline participation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45(3), 308-322. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2084
Semenov, A., Veijalainen, J., & Kyppo, J. (2010). Analysing the presence of school-shooting related communities at social media sites. International Journal of Multimedia Intelligence and Security, 1(3), 232-268. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMIS.2010.037540
Short, C., Rebar, A., Plotnikoff, R., & Vandelanotte, C. (2015). Designing engaging online behaviour change interventions: a proposed model of user engagement. The European Health Psychologist, 17(1), 32–38. Retrieved from: https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/2440/97646/3/hdl_97646.pdf
Smahel, D., MacHackova, H., Mascheroni, G., Dedkova, L., Staksrud, E., Olafsson, K., ... & Hasebrink, U. (2020). EU Kids Online 2020: Survey results from 19 countries. https://doi.org/10.21953/lse.47fdeqj01ofo
Sokolova, M. V., & Dozortseva, E. G. (2019). The Tendency to Auto-aggressive Behavior in Adolescents and the Information they consume on the Internet. Psychology and Law, 9(1), 22-35. https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2019090102
Soldatova, G. U. (2018). Digital socialization in the cultural-historical paradigm: a changing child in a changing world. Social Psychology and Society, 9(3), 71-80. https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2018090308
Soldatova, G. U., Nestik, T. A., Rasskazova, E. I., & Zotova, E. J. (2013). Cifrovaja kompetentnost’podrostkov i roditelej. Rezul’taty vserossijskogo issledovanija [Digital competence in adolescents and parents. The results of the national study]. Moscow: Internet Development Foundation.
Soldatova, G.U., Chigarkova, S.V. & Lvova, E.N. (2017). Online Aggression and Adolescents: the Results of Studying Schoolchildren in the City of Moscow and Moscow Region. Epokha Nauki/The Science Epoch, 12, 103-109.
Spears, B., Slee, P., Owens, L., & Johnson, B. (2009). Behind the scenes and screens: Insights into the human dimension of covert and cyberbullying. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 189-196. https://doi.org/10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.189
Sueki, H. (2015). The association of suicide-related Twitter use with suicidal behaviour: a cross-sectional study of young internet users in Japan. Journal of affective disorders, 170, 155-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.08.047
Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. Cyberpsychology & behavior, 7(3), 321-326. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291295
Syrokvashina, K. V., Oshevsky, D. S., Badmaeva, V. D., Dozortseva, E. G., Makushkin, E. V., Aleksandrova, N. A., ... & Shkityr, E. Y. (2019). Risk factors of fashioning of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents (based on the analysis of regional posthumous forensic evaluation). Psychology and Law, 9(1), 71-84. https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2019090105
Tikhonova, A. D., Dvoryanchikov, N. V., Ernst-Vintila, A., & Bovina, I. B. (2017). Radicalisation of Adolescents and Youth: In Search of Explanations. Cultural-Historical Psychology, 13(3), 32-40. https://doi.org/10.17759/chp.2017130305
Tkhostov, A. Sh. (2018). Transformation of higher mental functions in the era of the information society [Electronic version]. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8FuIeaAWfo
Vaske, E. V. & Goryunova, O. I. (2018) Psychological and Legal Analysis of Destructive Manifestations on the Internet. Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo Universiteta I’m N.I. Lobachevskogo/Herald of Lobachevsky N. I. University of Nizhniy Novgorod, 6, 104-110.
Venger, A. L. (2014). Psychological Syndromes: Approaches to the Design of Content Diagnostics of Development. Культурно историческая психология/Cultural-Historical Psychology. 10(1), 20–25. Retrieved from: https://psyjournals.ru/files/67569/kip_2014_1.pdf#page=25
Vygotsky, L. S. (1983). The History of Development of the Higher Mental Functions. Collected works. Moscow. Vol. 3.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1999). The Problems of the Psychology of the Child. Saint Petersburg.
Wallinius, M. (2012). Aggressive antisocial behavior- clinical, cognitive, and behavioral covariates of its persistence. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University. Retrieved from: https://portal.research.lu.se/portal/en/publications/aggressive-antisocial-behavior-clinical-cognitive-and-behavioral-covariates-of-its-persistence(3e1f693b-2c9c-436e-8ce6-59a76126d5ea)/publications.html
Wenar C. & Kerig, P. (2007). Developmental psychopathology. Saint Petersburg, AST Holding, Prime-EvroZnak Publishing. 1-672.
Whitty, M. T., Doodson, J., Creese, S., & Hodges, D. (2018). A picture tells a thousand words: What Facebook and Twitter images convey about our personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 133, 109-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.050
Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1308-1316. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00328.x
Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology & behavior, 1(3), 237-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237
Zhdanova, S.Y. & Doronina, V.F. (2019). Controlling content-related risks which students have in social networks. Herald of the Perm State Pedagogical Institute, Series 1, Psychological and Pedagogical Science, 1, 36-43.
Zmanovskaya, E. V. (2003). Deviantology (Psychology of Deviant Behavior). Moscow: Academy Publishing Centre, 1-288.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 by the authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.