• Daniela Dimitrova Radojichikj University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Skopje



Students with visual impairment, Reading, Braille reading rate, Braille literacy


A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm). Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm) and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm). This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.


Download data is not yet available.


Bell, J., Corn, A., Jose, R., Perez, A., Wall, R., & Wil-cox, K. (2002). An initial study of reading and comprehension rates for students who received optical devices. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB), 96(05).

Carver, R. P. (1990). Reading rate: A review of re-search and theory. Academic Press.

Concise Oxford Dictionary Online, s. v. “Literacy.” Retrieved from

Corn, A., & Koenig, A. (2002). Literacy for students with low vision: A framework for delivering instruction. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB), 96(05).

Emerson, R. W., Holbrook, M. C., & D’Andrea, F. M. (2009). Acquisition of literacy skills by young children who are blind: Results from the ABC Braille Study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(10), 610-624.

Erin, J. N. (2003). Educating students with visual impairments. Arlington, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.

Foulke, E. (1991). Braille. In Heller, M. A., & Schiff, W. (Eds.). (2013). The psychology of touch. Psychology Press. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hasbrouck, J., & Tindal, G. A. (2006). Oral reading fluency norms: A valuable assessment tool for reading teachers. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 636-644.

Hermelin, B., O’Connor, N. (1971). Right and left-handed reading of Braille. Nature, 231, 470.

Knowlton, M., & Wetzel, R. (1996). Braille reading rates as a function of reading tasks. Journal of Visual impairment and Blindness, 90, 227-236.

Koenig, A. (2000). Ensuring high-quality instruction for students in braille literacy programs. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB), 94(11).

Legge, G. E., Madison, C. M., & Mansfield, J. S. (1999). Measuring Braille reading speed with the MNREAD test. Visual Impairment Research, 1(3), 131-145.

Lowenfeld, B., Abel, G. L., Hatlen, P. H. (1969). Blind children learn to read. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Lusk, K. E., & Corn, A. L. (2006). Learning and Using Print and Braille: A Study of Dual-Media Learners, Part 2. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 100(11), 653-665.

McLinden, M., & McCall, S. (2002). Learning Through Touch: Supporting children with visual impairment and additional difficulties. David Fulton Publishers.

Miller, S. (1997). Reading through Touch. London: Routledge. Pring, L. (1984). A comparison of the word recognition processes of blind and sighted children. Child Development, 1865-1877.

Mousty, P., & Bertelson, P. (1985). A study of braille reading: 1. Reading speed as a function of hand usage and context. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37(2), 217-233.

Pring, L. (1994). Touch and go: learning to read Braille. Reading Research Quarterly, 67-74.

Ryles, R. (1996). The impact of braille reading skills on employment, income, education, and reading habits. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 90, 219-226.

Simon, C., & Huertas, J. A. (1998). How blind readers perceive and gather information written in braille. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 92, 322-330.

Wetzel, R., & Knowlton, M. (2000). A comparison of print and braille reading rates on three reading tasks. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 94(3), 146-154.

Whittle J. (2005). Building Braille reading speed: Some helpful suggestions. National Federation for the Blind Nebraska. Retrieved from

Wolffe, K. (2000). Making it! Successful transition competencies for youth with visual disabilities. See/Hear, 5(2), 19-24.

Wormsley, D. P. (1979). The effects of a hand move-ment training program on the hand movements and reading rates of young braille readers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.




How to Cite

Dimitrova Radojichikj, D. (2015). STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 3(1), 1–5.