Students’ School Satisfaction: The Role of Classroom Climate, Self-efficacy, and Engagement
Keywords:classroom climate, engagement, self-efficacy, school satisfaction
Students’ satisfaction with school is subjective, cognitive appraisal of overall positivity of school experiences, and precisely because it represents the key aspect of children’s overall perception of quality of life, it is important to find out what influences students’ school satisfaction and to which extent. The goal of this research was to establish whether self-efficacy and engagement function as mediating variables in the relationship between classroom climate and students’ school satisfaction. The research included 597 students from primary schools in Zagreb, Croatia. A structural equation model was designed and tested. The model testing showed that positive classroom climate has statistically significant and positive effects on self-efficacy and engagement. Furthermore, self-efficacy has a significant positive impact on explaining engagement. At the same time, negative classroom climate has a significant positive influence on engagement, which in turn contributes to the final effect on school satisfaction. The model has explained 56% of the school satisfaction variance in total.
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369-386. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20303
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. L. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument. Journal of school psychology, 44(5), 427-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.04.002
Asakereh, A., & Dehghannezhad, M. (2015). Student satisfaction with EFL speaking classes: Relating speaking self-efficacy and skills achievement. Issues in Educational Research, 25(4), 345-363. Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/iier25/asakereh.html
Bandura, A. (1995). Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in Changing Societies (pp. 1-45). Cambridge University Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.
Barksdale, C., Peters, M. L., & Corrales, A. (2021). Middle school students’ perceptions of classroom climate and its relationship to achievement. Educational Studies, 47(1), 84-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2019.1664411
Bing, M. N. (1999). Hypercompetitiveness in academia: Achieving criterion-related validity from item context specificity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 73(1), 80-99. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA730106
Bubic, A., & Goreta, I. (2015). Akademske i socijalne odrednice općeg zadovoljstva školom [Academic and social determinants of general school satisfaction]. Psihologijske teme, 24(3), 473-493. https://hrcak.srce.hr/149105
Connell, J. P. & Wellborn, J. G. (1993). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology, Vol. 23. (pp. 43-77). Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dorman, J., & Adams, J. (2004). Associations between students’ perceptions of classroom environment and academic efficacy in Australian and British secondary schools. Westminster Studies in Education, 27(1), 69-85. https://doi.org/10.1080/0140672040270106
Elmore, R. F. (2009). Schooling adolescents. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed.; pp. 193-227). John Wiley & Sons.
Epstein, J. L. (1981). The quality of school life. D.C. Heath/Lexington Books.
Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (1981). Validity and Use of the My Class Inventory. Science education, 65(2), 145-56. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730650206
Fraser, B. J. (1994). Research on classroom and school climate. In D. L. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning (pp. 493-541). Macmillan.
Fraser, B. J., & Fisher, D. L. (1982). Predicting students’ outcomes from their perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment. American Educational Research Journal, 19(4), 498-518. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312019004498
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of educational research, 74(1), 59-109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059
Gaspard, H., & Lauermann, F. (2021). Emotionally and motivationally supportive classrooms: A state-trait analysis of lesson-and classroom-specific variation in teacher-and student-reported teacher enthusiasm and student engagement. Learning and Instruction, 75, 101494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2021.101494
Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1980). Investigating an educational productivity model. Evaluation in Education, 4, 103-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-765X(80)90032-4
Haertel, G. D., Walberg, H. J., & Haertel, E. H. (1981). Socio-psychological environments and learning: A quantitative synthesis. British educational research journal, 7(1), 27-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192810070103
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203887332
Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological assessment, 6(2), 149. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.206
Huebner, E. S., Drane, W., & Valois, R. F. (2000). Levels and demographic correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. School Psychology International, 21(3), 281-292. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034300213005
Huebner, E. S., Laughlin, J. E., Ash, C., & Gilman, R. (1998). Further validation of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 16(2), 118-134. https://doi.org/10.1177/073428299801600202
Huebner, E. S., Valois, R. F., Paxton, R. J., & Drane, J. W. (2005). Middle school students’ perceptions of quality of life. Journal of Happiness studies, 6(1), 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-004-1170-x
Klein, R. & Newby, J. (2017). Competitiveness. In T. S. V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences (pp. 1-5). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1056-1
Lam, C. S. C., Yeung, P. P., & Yuen, M. (2018). Personal and Environmental Factors Affecting Hong Kong High-Ability Students’ School Satisfaction. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 28(2), 166-184. https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2017.18
Li, Y., & Lerner, R. M. (2011). Trajectories of school engagement during adolescence: implications for grades, depression, delinquency, and substance use. Developmental psychology, 47(1), 233. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021307
Li, Y., & Lerner, R. M. (2013). Interrelations of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive school engagement in high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(1), 20-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9857-5
Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs instudent engagement and learning intheclassroom. Reading &Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 119-137. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560308223
Löfstedt, P., García-Moya, I., Corell, M., Paniagua, C., Samdal, O., Välimaa, R., ... & Rasmussen, M. (2020). School satisfaction and school pressure in the WHO European region and North America: An analysis of time trends (2002–2018) and patterns of co-occurrence in 32 countries. Journal of adolescent health, 66(6), S59-S69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.007
Maricuțoiu, L. P., & Sulea, C. (2019). Evolution of self-efficacy, student engagement and student burnout during a semester. A multilevel structural equation modeling approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 76, 101785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.101785
Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., & Kaplan, A. (2007). Early adolescents’ perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement. Journal of educational psychology, 99(1), 83–98. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International journal of educational research, 31(6), 459-470. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(99)00015-4
Ryckman, R. M., Libby, C. R., van den Borne, B., Gold, J. A., & Lindner, M. A. (1997). Values of hypercompetitive and personal development competitive individuals. Journal of personality assessment, 69(2), 271-283. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6902_2
Schunk, D. H. & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2014). Academic self-efficacy. U Furlong, M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman & E. S. Huebner, Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 115-130). New York, NY: Routledge.
Schunk, D. H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational psychologist, 26(3-4), 207-231. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1991.9653133
Shimotsu-Dariol, S., Mansson, D. H., & Myers, S. A. (2012). Students’ academic competitiveness and their involvement in the learning process. Communication Research Reports, 29(4), 310-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2012.723643
Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of educational psychology, 85(4), 571. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1681
Smither, R. D., & Houston, J. M. (1992). The nature of competitiveness: The development and validation of the competitiveness index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(2), 407-418. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164492052002016
Subotnik, R. F., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Worrell, F. C. (2011). Rethinking giftedness and gifted education: A proposed direction forward based on psychological science. Psychological science in the public interest, 12(1), 3-54. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100611418056
Vidić, T. (2020). Razredno-nastavno ozračje, samoučinkovitost, angažiranost i zadovoljstvo školom učenika u osnovnoj školi [Classroom climate, self-efficacy, engagement, and student school satisfaction in elementary school]. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]: Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb.
Voelkl, K. E. (1995). School warmth, student participation, and achievement. The journal of experimental education, 63(2), 127-138. https://doi.org/10.2307/20152443
Wang, M. T., Degol, J. L., Amemiya, J., Parr, A., & Guo, J. (2020). Classroom climate and children’s academic and psychological wellbeing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Developmental Review, 57, 100912. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2020.100912
Wentzel, K. R. (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of educational psychology, 89(3), 411. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1241
Zhou, J., Huebner, E. S., & Tian, L. (2021). Co-developmental trajectories of psychological need satisfactions at school: Relations to mental health and academic functioning in Chinese elementary school students. Learning and Instruction, 74, 101465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2021.101465
Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational psychologist, 25(1), 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2501_2
Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives. Routledge.
Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American educational research journal, 29(3), 663-676. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312029003663
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Tomislava Vidić
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.