International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) <p><strong>Serial type:</strong> Journal</p> <p><strong>Format:</strong> Print and Electronic version</p> <p>ISSN 2334-847X (Printed)</p> <p>ISSN 2334-8496 (Online)</p> <p><strong>Web site:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Editor:</strong> Dr. Lazar Stosic, PhD (Editor-in-Chief)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> 3 issues per year (April, August and December)</p> <p><strong>Start year:</strong> 2013.</p> <p><strong>The DOI prefix</strong> allotted for IJCRSEE is 10.5937</p> <p><strong>Content type:</strong> Academic/Scholarly</p> <p><strong>Language:</strong> English</p> <p><strong>Key features:</strong> Abstracted and Indexed, Refereed, Peer-reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Status:</strong> Active</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>cognitive, science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, anthropology, education, pedagogy, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, cognition.</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> The Association for the Development of Science, Engineering and Education, Serbia, <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Co-publisher: </strong></p> <p>- <strong>Don State Technical University - DSTU, Rostov on Don, Russia</strong> - <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Licensing History:</strong><br /><img src="" width="296" height="107" /></p> <p>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="">CC BY</a>) has been used starting with Volume 8 Issue 2 2020, while previous issues of the journal were distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial–NoDerrivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).</p> <p><img src="" alt="" width="84" height="42" /></p> <p>In previous Volumes, till Volume 8 Issue 2 2020, we used Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International <a href="">CC-BY-NC-ND </a>.</p> <p><strong>Editorial description:</strong> </p> <p>International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) is an international, high quality, peer reviewed open access journal which publishes articles in all areas of cognitive science, perception, natural language understanding, inference, memory processes, learning, problem solving, planning, connectionism, and other areas of interdisciplinary concern related to education, pedagogy and psychology.</p> <p>The main objective of the Journal is to discuss global prospects and innovations concerning major issues of cognitive science, to publish new scientific results of cognitive science research, including the studies of cognitive processes, emotions, perception, memory, thinking, problem solving, planning, education and teaching, language and consciousness study, the results of studying man’s cognitive development and the formation of basic cognitive skills in everyday life. The Journal seeks to stimulate the initiation of new research and ideas in cognitive science for the purpose of integration and interaction of international specialists in the development of cognitive science as interdisciplinary knowledge.</p> <p>IJCRSEE particularly welcomes articles on the results of scientific research in various fields of cognitive science (psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience) catering for international and multidisciplinary audience. Readers include those in cognitive psychology, special education, education, adult education, educational psychology, school psychology, speech and language, and public policy.</p> <p>Highest priority is given to research reports that are specifically written for a multidisciplinary audience. The audience is primarily researchers in cognitive science and its associated fields, including anthropologists, education researchers, psychologists, philosophers, linguists, computer scientists, neuroscientists, and roboticists. The journal specializes in extensive articles that have a major impact on cognitive theory and provide new theoretical advances in cognitive research in education.</p> <p>International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE<strong>) is currently the only journal</strong> which focuses on the investigation of cognitive research in many areas primarily in education.</p> The Association for the Development of Science, Engineering and Education, Serbia en-US International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) 2334-847X Editorial <p>Editorial</p> Lazar Stošić Copyright (c) 2021 Lazar Stošić 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 Applying Positive Discipline in School and Adolescents’ Self-esteem <p>Starting from the general principles of the concept of positive discipline, the paper points out that schools and teachers can significantly contribute to the application of positive discipline to affect different aspects of a student’s personality development. The potentials of applying positive discipline in the school for developing adolescents’ self-esteem are particularly emphasized. Accordingly, this paper will present the results of a study that aimed to establish a correlation between assessing the presence of positive discipline in a school context and the level of adolescents’ self-esteem. The survey included a convenience sample of 195 high school students from three high schools - art, technical, and grammar school. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the scale for assessing the presence of positive discipline in the school were used to collect the data. The results showed that adolescents exhibit a high level of self-esteem, while their assessment of the presence of positive discipline in school is moderate. Also, it was found that with the increase in the assessment of the presence of positive discipline in school, the level of adolescents’ self-esteem increased, and the statistically significant moderating role of the measured variables was found only in the type of high school. The conclusion points to the need to sensitize teachers to manage the classroom according to the principles of positive discipline, as well as the importance of creating the conditions that, through the phenomenon of positive discipline, effectively raise the quality of schoolwork as a whole.</p> Slađana Zuković Dušica Stojadinović Copyright (c) 2021 Slađana Zuković, Dušica Stojadinović 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 1 11 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-1-11 Does Student’s Cognitive Flexibility Decrease During Pandemic? A New Approach to Measure Cognitive Flexibility <p>The aim of this study is to examine the cognitive flexibility before and during the COVID-19 pandemic through a different performance measurement suitable for online application. In the study, three different data collected in 2019 (T19), 2020 (T20) and 2021 (T21) were compared with both within-and between-subject designs. One-hundred-and-twenty-three university students were included in the study for within-subjects, 239 for between-subject. According to the findings of the study, the cognitive flexibility of the students who continue formal education in T19 is higher than the students who continue distance education in T20 according to both within-subject and between-subject design. Besides, in both designs, fewer total words were produced in T19 than in T20. The sentences created by the students who continue their distance education in pandemic stay around less categories and contain more words. According to the within-subject findings obtained at T20 and T21, the cognitive flexibility and total words produced at T20 were greater. In other words, the scores of the students decreased over time during the pandemic period. In T21, cognitive flexibility is not related to vulnerability, perceived risk, and fear of COVID-19. However, according to the regression results, vulnerability at T21 was predicted by the total word and total emotional word in T20. Accordingly, producing more total words in T20 reduced vulnerability in T21; however, using more emotional words in T20 increased vulnerability in T21. In addition, the number of siblings was negatively associated with vulnerability. Lastly, cognitive flexibility test was found to be reliable.</p> Hüseyin Zahid Cambaz Gülten Ünal Copyright (c) 2021 Hüseyin Zahid Cambaz, Gülten Ünal 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 13 22 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-13-22 Cognitive Constructivist Way of Teaching Scientific and Technical Contents <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">For pupils to obtain high-quality and permanent knowledge, it is important that the teaching of scientific and technical contents is based on cognitive constructivist approach. We carried out a research, during which we asked three research questions, on a sample of 167 class teachers in the Republic of Slovenia. We wanted to find out: how often class teachers included elements typical of cognitive constructivist approach; was the frequency of using elements of cognitive constructivist teaching model linked to the teacher’s concern for their own professional development, and was the frequency of using elements of cognitive constructivist teaching model linked to the factors, such as the teacher’s estimated importance, difficulty and necessity of Science and Technics, the assessment of their own competence and professional enthusiasm. Data were collected with three scales: ways of teaching scientific and technical contents; attitude to scientific and technical contents and teaching and components of professional development. Data were processed according to descriptive and inferential statistics. The research showed that the formulation and verification of hypotheses, two important elements in view of cognitive constructivist teaching model, were less often represented. With statistically significant higher frequency they were organized by teachers, who rated their competence higher, were more enthusiastic and cared more about their professional development.</p> Darjo Zuljan Milena Valenčič Zuljan Petra Pejić Papak Copyright (c) 2021 Darjo Zuljan, Milena Valenčič Zuljan, Petra Pejić Papak 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 23 36 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-23-36 Peculiarities of The Students’ Conceptual Structures and Basic Beliefs Correlation <p>The research is basically aimed at studying the students’ conceptual structure and basic beliefs being formed and correlated as well as at their classifying in accordance with the level of integration and coherence. The students’ conceptual structures and basic beliefs are analyzed in the article; special attention is paid to semantic, categoric and conceptual abilities coherence (homogeneity) and formedness. If speaking about methodology of the research, it includes theoretical and empirical methods. Theoretical, cluster and factor analyses as well as the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test allowed us to define 5 clusters (groups) with low, medium-low, mean (average), high and extraordinary indices of the students’ conceptual structure and basic beliefs formedness. These clusters significantly differ at levels from p≤0.01 to p≤0.05. The students’ conceptual structure and basic beliefs correlations form the level systems classification characterized by different coherence of these levels. It is sufficient to conclude that different basic beliefs are the core of the students’ subjective inner world and are correlated with these beliefs conceptual structures specificity. The attained results prove the phenomenon of the intellectual resource “splitting”: the intellectual resource can split into productive and non-productive components in case of high-level intelligence, i.e. if the intelligence level is too high the intellectual resource and its basic components can be insufficiently formed and/or poorly developed.</p> Irina Kibalchenko Eksakusto Tatiana Chegodaeva Klavdia Copyright (c) 2021 Irina Kibalchenko, Eksakusto Tatiana, Chegodaeva Klavdia 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 37 50 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-37-50 The Ratio of Verbal and Nonverbal Components of Individual Cognitive Maps as a Reflection of the Collaborative Thinking Activity of Its Participants <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">The presented results of the study allow us to determine the ratio of verbal and nonverbal components of thinking activity in solving problems of different types. The novelty of the research is in the use of individual cognitive maps made on the results of collaborative thinking activity in the study of possible combinations of symbolic (verbal) and figurative (nonverbal) components of internal thought processes implemented in different conditions. The study included two methodological blocks. The first of them is diagnostic. It consisted of four tasks (a verbal task with one solution, a verbal task with multiple solutions, a nonverbal task with one solution, a nonverbal task with multiple solutions), as well as a cognitive map based on the results of solving these tasks. The second block is mathematical and statistical, including the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and the Fried-man chi-square test. The study sample consisted of 80 students of the Don State Technical University. As a result of the study, it was found that cognitive maps created with time constraints significantly outperform cognitive maps created without such restrictions in terms of figurative, symbolic abstractness and symbolism. Cognitive maps created without time constraints significantly outperform cognitive maps created with time constraints in terms of imagery. In general, the predominance of the verbal or nonverbal components of thinking can vary significantly, but the general trend towards the predominant character of the imagery of thought processes remains.</p> Denis Dautov Copyright (c) 2021 Denis Dautov 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 51 62 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-51-62 Students’ Perception and Attitudes toward Faculty Image on Social Networks <p>Purpose of this paper is to determine how students perceive the image of their faculty on social networks, but also to analyse their experience and attitudes towards faculty social media strategy. The research was implemented using descriptive statistic techniques, as well as non-parametric tests such as Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis H Test and Spearman’s Rho. The most common source of information when it comes to enrolment to faculty is word of mouth, while social media have a signifi-cantly lower credibility. During their schooling the respondents have most confidence in the official website, and far less in social networks. Such findings signalize the necessity of creating an adequate digital marketing strategy that can significantly improve the perceived faculty image. Positive perception of the image is fundamental for understanding the process of searching for and selection of the faculty, especially since the results have shown that the students do not value highly the image their faculties have on social networks. Positive perception of faculty image mostly depends on promotion strategy on Facebook and Insta-gram, and far less on LinkedIn and Twitter. In addition, students value more the image of the faculty whose social network pro-file they follow and, in a case, when they are followed back. No correlation was found between faculty image and gender, age or average grade. Therefore, we can conclude that social networks are very important in creating positive image and thanks to new technology, they are a promising solution for differentiation from competition in digital space.</p> Milena Vukić Snežana Milićević Ksenija Vukić Milorad Vukić Copyright (c) 2021 Milena Vukić, Snežana Milićević, Ksenija Vukić, Milorad Vukić 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 63 74 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-63-74 International Student Exchange Management as Factor of Educational Services Development <p>Since the beginning of XXI century higher education internationalization trend has been intensifying around the world. The goal of the research is to study managing international education characteristics to promote educational services export. Levels of interconnection and interdependence between economic agents around the world are increasing; transnational forms of economic activity, information and communication technologies are developing. The market for higher education is developing intensively as educational services of the highest international level demand is increasing. The research goal is to analyze the main economic tendencies in modern students’ exchange programmes. The problems discussed are the need to increase educational services export by promoting it using various student exchange models, study of managing international education characteristics to promote educational services export and its development. For this purpose the methodology consisting of modeling educational policy processes and analyzing the results is used. The results of the study show that higher education takes on international socio-economic features, which are to be seen as an attractive investment target. Modern higher education is developing in the conditions of open access and mutual influence of conditions in different countries, depending on the basis of economic, political and cultural relations. The growing interest in education abroad leads to existing paradigm of educational services management review thus updating this study’s topic. In the conclusion we highlight that integrative processes in internationalization of education management can significantly enrich practical application in this sphere. Recommendations in this study can be used to increase educational services export and import.</p> Elena A. Makarova Elena L. Makarova Irina A. Egorova Copyright (c) 2021 Elena A. Makarova, Elena L. Makarova, Irina A. Egorova 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 75 90 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-75-90 Consideration of the Basic Competencies of a Preschool Teacher in Curriculum Modernization <p>The work deals with an important aspect of teacher training — the formation of competence in the field of technologization of the pedagogical process. An updated theoretical model of a holistic pedagogical process is presented, which is the basis for coverage of the criteria for the formation of abilities for the constructive and systematic introduction of technologies into pre-school education. The author’s questionnaire The Scale of Self-Assessment of Pedagogical Abilities for the Technologization of the Pedagogical Process was presented. The article provides the results of its testing on a sample of a total of 412 respondents, including 170 preschool teachers with work experience from 1 to 25 years, 200 — students-future teachers, 42 - PEF coordinators. Based on the comparison of samples of teachers with different work experience, it describes how the nature of professional activity determines the specific structure of competences in the field of TPP. The experiment was a part of research; authors showed the conditions for the implementation of a special curriculum, which helps effectively prepare teachers for the use of modern educational technologies.</p> Rakhila Zh. Aubakirova Gulbanu A. Kabzhanova Oxana G. Вelenko Nelli Yu. Pigovayeva Alyona A. Kostyunina Copyright (c) 2021 Rakhila Zh. Aubakirova, Gulbanu A. Kabzhanova, Oxana G. Вelenko, Nelli Yu. Pigovayeva, Alyona A. Kostyunina 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 91 103 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-91-103 The Development of the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Attitude and Motivation Survey Towards Secondary School Students <p>The purpose of the research was to determine the secondary school students’ attitude and motivation toward STEM. For this purpose, two field studies for developing a survey were conducted. The first field study, pilot study, was performed for collecting the research data and making statistical analysis of the research data. After completing statistical analysis procedures (Explanatory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis) of the pilot survey, the reliability and validity of the pilot survey was calculated. The statistical results indicated that the pilot survey was reliable and it also had four sub-factors. The second field study, main study, was performed for comparing and discussing the research data. The research was applied to 2912 students at different 14 secondary schools during the academic year of 2018-2019 at Izmir, Turkey. The students’ results in the metropolitan and suburban regions of the city were compared. The results indicated the decrease in the attitude and motivation of students at higher levels in both regions toward STEM. When the results of the research were evaluated in terms of the sub-factors, the science and engineering values of secondary school students in the suburban were higher than the values of the students in metropolitan. It was not found a significant difference between the students’ technology and mathematics values for both metropolitan and suburban. There was a significant difference between the 7th grade students’ science, technology, engineering, and mathematics values instructed in metropolitan and suburban in favor of the students instructed in suburban. It was calculated that there was not a significant difference between the 6th and 8th grade students’ all values for both the regions. It was only calculated that there was a significant difference between the 5th grade students’ mathematics value. Investigations on gender factors showed that the female students’ science, technology, engineering, and mathematics values were generally lower than the male students’ values for both the regions.</p> Tolga Gok Copyright (c) 2021 Tolga Gok 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 105 119 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-105-119 Impact of a One-Off Demonstration on the Use of ICT in the Teaching of Andragogy Students on Their Change of Attitude Towards the Use of ICT in Education <p>The research study deals with the issue of attitudes towards the use of ICT in the education of andragogy students. As a method of research, we chose a three-year experiment. The study first surveyed 224 students in andragogical fields – future educators - in order to discover input factors like identifying their relationship to ICT, skills, experience in the field of ICT and frequency of the use of ICT at work. The study further examines four separate variables, representing three dimensions of attitudes (cognitive, conative and emotional) towards the use of ICT in education – the conviction to use ICT in their teaching, the opinion on the impact of the use of ICT on the understanding of curriculum, the opinion on the impact of the use of ICT in teaching and education itself and the tendency to act to recommend the use of ICT in teaching to their colleagues. In the university teaching of students itself, using the didactic method of AIDA on a mathematical problem, the experimental group is the subject of a demonstration of the use of ICT in empirical verification of the results of the task, as opposed to a control group that does not use ICT in teaching. Specifically, the representation of results in MS Excel and the empirical verification of results in a Python-created program are used. The research aims to determine the impact of the demonstration of a one-off use of ICT in teaching on the change of dimensions of attitude towards the use of ICT in education represented by separated variables. Their rate is measured by a 10-point bipolar scale. The results show p value (p&lt;0.05), which provides evidence that a one-off demonstration of the use of ICT in the teaching of andragogy students is a factor that statistically significantly influences these dimensions of attitude towards the use of ICT in education and thus its overall change, regardless of the gender of the students. The three-year research study confirmed these results in an aggregated experimental group of 112 respondents who were compared with the same aggregated control group.</p> Martin Kursch Copyright (c) 2021 Martin Kursch 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 121 134 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-121-134 Cognitive-Emotional Music Listening Paradigm in Professional Music Education <p>Music education is an important factor of students’ development. The positive effect of music training is evident in all areas, from the intellectual, psychomotor to social and emotional ones, and therefore music classes in the music school should focus both on music making and on experience, understanding and evaluating music, as well as on expressing one’s own ideas, feelings and thoughts. In ear training classes it can be achieved through the area of music listening. Didactical initiatives of the 19th and 20th century contributed to the recognition of the advantages of the auditory approach, while technological innovations allowed the practical application of music listening. Although there are examples that point to fostering the emotional experience in music classes, music listening is still focused on giving assignments of cognitive type and learning about music components. Some exceptions pertain to the application of multimodality in music teaching using both musical and extra-musical areas. The paper is aimed at pointing to the value of the cognitive-emotional music listening and to the possibilities it opens in ear training classes. The cognitive-emotional music listening focuses on experiencing, understanding and appreciation of classical music aimed at shaping students’ worldview and improving their music competences. It can be achieved by the multimodal and interdisciplinary approach to a musical piece. Students learn about the musical-historical context of the emergence of a piece in a given time and circumstances, about the composing approach and the theoretical and harmony features of the work, they develop their musical and critical thinking, make music, and evaluate both music and their own achievements. Repeated listening to a musical piece or excerpts from it, observing and familiarizing with the piece from different perspectives and discussion about the piece and experience after listening make it possible to better understand the piece and its specifics, as well as to discover and improve one’s own self and accept others and the different.</p> Sabina Vidulin Senad Kazić Copyright (c) 2021 Sabina Vidulin, Senad Kazić 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 9 1 135 145 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-135-145