International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) <p><strong>Serial type:</strong> Journal</p> <p><strong>Format:</strong> Print and Electronic version</p> <p>ISSN 2334-847X (Printed)</p> <p>ISSN 2334-8496 (Online)</p> <p><strong>Web site:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Editor:</strong> Dr. Lazar Stosic, PhD (Editor-in-Chief)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> 3 issues per year (April, August and December)</p> <p><strong>Start year:</strong> 2013.</p> <p><strong>The DOI prefix</strong> allotted for IJCRSEE is 10.5937</p> <p><strong>Content type:</strong> Academic/Scholarly</p> <p><strong>Language:</strong> English</p> <p><strong>Key features:</strong> Abstracted and Indexed, Refereed, Peer-reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Status:</strong> Active</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>cognitive, science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, anthropology, education, pedagogy, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, cognition.</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> The Association for the Development of Science, Engineering and Education, Serbia, <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Co-publisher: </strong></p> <p>- <strong>Don State Technical University - DSTU, Rostov on Don, Russia</strong> - <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Licensing History:</strong><br /><img src="" width="296" height="107" /></p> <p>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="">CC BY</a>) has been used starting with Volume 8 Issue 2 2020, while previous issues of the journal were distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial–NoDerrivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).</p> <p><img src="" alt="" width="84" height="42" /></p> <p>In previous Volumes, till Volume 8 Issue 2 2020, we used Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International <a href="">CC-BY-NC-ND </a>.</p> <p><strong>Editorial description:</strong> </p> <p>International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) is an international, high quality, peer reviewed open access journal which publishes articles in all areas of cognitive science, perception, natural language understanding, inference, memory processes, learning, problem solving, planning, connectionism, and other areas of interdisciplinary concern related to education, pedagogy and psychology.</p> <p>The main objective of the Journal is to discuss global prospects and innovations concerning major issues of cognitive science, to publish new scientific results of cognitive science research, including the studies of cognitive processes, emotions, perception, memory, thinking, problem solving, planning, education and teaching, language and consciousness study, the results of studying man’s cognitive development and the formation of basic cognitive skills in everyday life. The Journal seeks to stimulate the initiation of new research and ideas in cognitive science for the purpose of integration and interaction of international specialists in the development of cognitive science as interdisciplinary knowledge.</p> <p>IJCRSEE particularly welcomes articles on the results of scientific research in various fields of cognitive science (psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience) catering for international and multidisciplinary audience. Readers include those in cognitive psychology, special education, education, adult education, educational psychology, school psychology, speech and language, and public policy.</p> <p>Highest priority is given to research reports that are specifically written for a multidisciplinary audience. The audience is primarily researchers in cognitive science and its associated fields, including anthropologists, education researchers, psychologists, philosophers, linguists, computer scientists, neuroscientists, and roboticists. The journal specializes in extensive articles that have a major impact on cognitive theory and provide new theoretical advances in cognitive research in education.</p> <p>International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE<strong>) is currently the only journal</strong> which focuses on the investigation of cognitive research in many areas primarily in education.</p> The Association for the Development of Science, Engineering and Education, Serbia en-US International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) 2334-847X Editorial <p>Editorial</p> Lazar Stošić Copyright (c) 2021 By author 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 The Way of Learning Preserved in The Structure of Individual Experience Shapes Task-Switching: Implications for Neuroscience and Education <p>Task switching is a behavioral phenomenon that serves as a tool for assessment of individual cognitive abilities that becomes especially essential in our multitasking milieu. Factors of task-switching include cognitive load and cognitive effort, mostly derived from task difficulty, as well as age and practice. The analysis of brain activity on the level of single neurons shows that the activations that contribute to task performance and switching differ with respect to the protocol of learning the alternated tasks. We argue that task switching is affected by the history of learning and in turn it changes the structure of individual experience. On this basis we outline perspectives of task switching studies in the fundamental field of long-term memory and applied field of education and therapy.</p> Alexey A. Sozinov Anastasiia V. Bakhchinaa Yuri I. Alexandrov Copyright (c) 2021 Alexey Sozinov, Anastasiia Bakhchina, Yuri I. Alexandrov 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 291 299 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-291-299 Partnership Between Teachers and School Counsellors for Quality Learning and Work in the Community <p>This article discusses the topic of schools as a learning communities from the perspective of the collaboration of two groups of school workers - teachers and school counsellors. The introduction defines how the concept of schools as learning communities is understood and how it is related to the concept of learning organizations. It also further elaborates on the key characteristics of learning communities. The first premise of the contribution is that through joint effort and collaboration, counsellors and teachers can more efficiently face the practical challenges of their work, both in providing help and encouragement to students and in ensuring better classroom work on the level of the whole school. The second is that they are important partners to each other in their professional development through joint reflections of their educational principles and expectations. The article further focuses on the quality of cooperation between counsellors and teachers in primary and secondary schools in Slovenia. The results of the empirical research show that both groups of school workers tend to evaluate their cooperation as either very good or good while teachers tend to be more satisfied. The questionnaire responses show that teachers believe collaboration can benefit them, however that they frequently leave decisions about work with specific students or classes to the counsellors. Establishing and maintaining partner collaboration is always a challenge, however, it is also crucial for effectively confronting contemporary challenges and ensuring quality learning for all and the contribution thus concludes with guidelines for establishing such a beneficial collaboration.</p> Barbara Šteh Jana Kalin Jasna Mažgon Copyright (c) 2021 Barbara Šteh, Jana Kalin, Jasna Mažgon, 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 147 159 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-147-159 Metacognitive Awareness and Academic Self-Regulation of HEI Students <p>The presented manuscript has analysed the theoretical aspects of the concepts of metacognitive awareness and academic self-regulation of HEI students. A theoretical essence of the mentioned above phenomena has been theoretically studied. The role and importance of metacognitive awareness and its components for the learning efficiency and academic self-regulation of HEI students have been described. It has been determined that such a metacognitive characteristic of personality as metacognitive awareness determines not only the organization of mental and behavioral processes, but also relates to the academic success of the subject of learning activity - student. The results of empirical research with the use of Questionnaire “Academic Self-Regulation” by R. Ryan &amp; D. Connell, Questionnaire “Metacognitive Awareness Inventory” by D. Everson &amp; S. Tobias, G. Schraw &amp; R. Dennison’s questionnaire “Metacognitive awareness”, and correlation analysis with the use of the Pearson’s and Spearmen’s rank correlation coefficients, have proved that students with a high level of metacognitive awareness (involvement in activities) have high performance on the basis of identified and internal self-regulated learning activities. The students of this type are more autonomous in conducting their self-regulated learning activities, developing their metacognitive abilities, such as metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, metamemory and meta-thinking. Summarizing the results of theoretical analysis and the empirical data evaluation, we can conclude that the learning behavior of modern student youth has been dominated by dependent types of self-regulation.</p> Eduard Balashov Ihor Pasichnyk Ruslana Kalamazh Copyright (c) 2021 Eduard Balashov, Ihor Pasichnyk, Ruslana Kalamazh 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 161 172 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-161-172 Attractive Spheres of Students’ Self-realization as Practices for Supporting Their Psychological Well-being in University Education <p>The study is aimed at finding the varieties of appealing spheres for realization of students’ potential in higher school. The authors substantiate and develop the concept of attractors for students’ self-realization, which designate the appealing spheres and forms of manifestation of students’ personal efforts and capacities in higher education. The methods of conceptual-applied reconstruction and psychological surveys are used to determine the attractive space for students’ self-development. The study identifies a group of potentially attractive spheres (learning-cognitive, research, sports-wellness, volunteer, artistic-creative, innovative-entrepreneurial, information-media, social-civic, sphere of cross-cultural communication). The study presents the results of diagnosing the subjective significance of these spheres for students of different specialties and different levels of self-realization in education. The conclusion is made about the tendency of influence of students’ involvement in attractive spheres on the success of their self-realization in educational environment. The prospects of applying and operating the category of attractors as socio-cultural predictors of successful self-realization and psychological well-being of students in the process of University training are shown.</p> Elena Shutenko Andrey Shutenko Tatiana Kuzmicheva Anastasia Koreneva Galina Romanova Irina Talysheva Copyright (c) 2021 Elena Shutenko, ASndrey Shutenko, Tatiana Kuzmicheva, Anastasia Koreneva, Galina Romanova, Irina Talysheva 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 173 188 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-173-188 The Ideal L2 Self as a Factor of Self-Motivation in Willingness to Communicate <p>Theoretical basis of this paper is the heuristic L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS). The research aims to determine the degree to which the ideal L2 self can be regarded as a significant factor with regards to its power to make a difference in students’ actual motivated behaviour in L2 communication. The research sample consists of 396 students. The ideal L2 self is a predictor variable. Willingness to communicate and the obtained grades are criterion variables. Gender, period of time spent learning English / German, and whether students are residing in the country where the target language is spoken are all moderator variables. Systematic non-experimental observation method based on Dörnyei and Taguchi´s survey was used in this study. Cronbach’s alpha indicated high reliability in the presented sample (.92). Willingness to communicate was investigated using McCroskey´s questionnaire. The findings indicate a rather complex picture of the observed L2 MSS constructs and the importance of their components in the field of L2 learning. Therefore, for further research, it is suggested that the ideal L2 self should be divided into two constructs: obligations that the individual would like to comply with and obligations that others expect him/her to comply with. The contribution of the L2 learning experience should also be considered because otherwise, it is difficult to determine the progress of the model design and what to do with it in practice.</p> Jelisaveta Šafranj Aleksandra Gojkov Rajić Vesna Bogdanović Copyright (c) 2021 Jelisaveta Šafranj, Aleksandra Gojkov Rajić, Vesna Bogdanović 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 189 202 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-189-202 Education in Online Environment from Students’ and Teachers’ Perspective <p>The pandemic related to COVID-19 has affected education particularly in terms of the massive shift towards online teaching and study. Students and teachers had to face new challenges they had not met before. The aim of the paper is to research how both, students and teachers perceive the online educational process, to identify advantages and disadvantages of online teaching, as well as to analyze and evaluate the quality of online teaching in comparison with the attendance form of education from both students’ and teachers’ perspective. In order to fulfill this purpose, we carried out two separate questionnaire surveys (among students and teachers at the Faculty of Economic Informatics at the University of Economics in Bratislava). Based on conclusions resulting from our research, we can affirm that both students and teachers prefer the attendance form of education rather than online teaching, students mainly because of need of socialization, personal contact with teachers and classmates, better and faster communication with teachers, and active class discussion. The attendance form of education eliminates technology related problems, such as outages of the Internet, electricity, missing technology equipment, and this form of education is performed on higher quality level in comparison with online education. Among the most frequently limitations of online education mentioned by teachers were anonymity of students, complexity of preparation of study materials, and cheating during exams and tests. There are also some advantages the online education offers, such as time savings, more effective, creative and flexible modern way of teaching, and recording lectures.</p> Miriama Blahušiaková Daša Mokošová Erik Šoltés Copyright (c) 2021 Miriama Blahušiaková, Daša Mokošová, Erik Šoltés 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 203 226 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-203-226 Determining Practices of Classroom Teachers Who Have Mainstreaming and Special Needs Students in Their Classes <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">The aim of this research is to determine, interpret and provide recommendations on instructional practices and evaluation of classroom teachers working with mainstreaming students at schools in the North Cyprus. A qualitative research method was used in the research. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews as one of the qualitative data collection methods. The interview form used in the research included 10 questions related to design and teaching practices as well as evaluation of the effectiveness of the instruction. Interviews were conducted with 12 classroom teachers working at mainstreaming classes under the North Cyprus Ministry of National Education and all interviews were recorded. These data were transferred to a digital environment where they were interpreted as code titles. The results showed that classroom teachers carry out in-class practices for teaching methods and activities of their mainstreaming students, and benefit from visual materials that they prepared with an assistant teacher. However, the classroom teachers also stated that they are unable to allocate time for their mainstreaming students because of the large numbers of students in the class and therefore they send their mainstreaming students to the special education teachers in their schools. It was determined that classroom teachers make their evaluations based on the level, interest and ability of students when evaluation the effectiveness of teaching.<br /></span></span></p> Pelin Gür Ahmet Yikmis Copyright (c) 2021 Pelin Gür, Ahmet Yikmis 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 227 240 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-227-240 Professionalization of The Principal’s Role <p>The aim of this work is to point out the importance of the professionalization of the principal’s role in education institutions, with an accent on preschool institutions. The sample included principals (N=57) of preschool institutions in Central Croatia. The goal was to test the mediation relationship through SEM and examine the direct influence of interpersonal relationships within the preschool institution on the development of its work quality; furthermore, to test the indirect influence of these relationships by introducing the mediation variable of professional competence. The structured modelling in the AMOS was applied for testing the direct and indirect influence. The contribution of interpersonal relationships on the work quality is high and statistically significant (β=0,920), which confirms the direct influence. For testing the mediation effects, a bootstrapping method was designed that confirmed the indirect influence of interpersonal relationships on the work quality with the statistically significant serial mediator of professional competence (p= 0,016), thereby confirming partial mediation. This research determined that positive interpersonal relations, mediated by the principal’s professional competence, have a positive effect on the work quality of a preschool institution. In order for preschool institutions to reach the desired quality, it is necessary for them to be managed by professionally empowered and expert principals who promote prime cooperative relationships as the starting point in developing a high-quality institution. The results of this research contribute to a clearer perception and understanding of the professionalization of the principal’s role through key areas of his/her work and activity, and the possibility of their practical implementation into education institutions.</p> Tihana Kokanović Siniša Opić Copyright (c) 2021 Tihana Kokanović, Siniša Opić 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 241 252 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-241-252 Features of Critical Thinking of Individual Entrepreneurs With Different Levels of Self-Regulation <p>In the crisis conditions of entrepreneurs business functioning in Russian, it is important to develop critical thinking in conjunction with the skills of self-regulation of behavior. It is assumed that entrepreneurs with different styles of self-regulation differ in the level of critical thinking, and there is also a relationship between the styles of self-regulation and the level of critical thinking. The theoretical basis of the study is the idea of the relationship between the degree of formation of individual self-regulation and the productivity of performing various types of professional activities. The sample of the study consisted of 140 individual entrepreneurs engaged in entrepreneurial activity for more than two years, aged from 30 to 50 years. We used techniques to analyze the style of self-regulation of behavior, volitional self-regulation, critical thinking and mental abilities. The study allowed us to expand the understanding of the relationship between critical thinking and self-regulation, to reveal the content aspects of critical thinking of entrepreneurs with different levels of self-regulation of behavior. We found out that in the group of entrepreneurs with a high level of self-regulation of behavior, there is a high level of volitional self-regulation, perseverance, self-control, information processing skills and critical thinking skills. We came to conclusion that there are differences at the content and semantic level among entrepreneurs, differentiated by the type of self-regulation. For entrepreneurs with a low level of self-regulation, it is planned to conduct a program for the development of critical thinking.</p> Galina A. Molokhina Vlada Pishchik Arkadiy Fomin Copyright (c) 2021 Vlada Pishchik 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 253 264 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-253-264 Indicators of the Wider Social Context and Academic Performance of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students <p>The evaluation of the educational system is performed through the prism of the relationship between the individual person and society, taking into account social and economic, political, cultural, socio-economic, family tendencies and directions of development. Therefore, the analysis of the influence of social, economic, welfare, psychological and school factors is necessary in order to identify the positive, but also the negative influences of the factors and thus prevents the poor academic results of the deaf and hard of hearing students. The research problem is aimed at a wider understanding of the factors of academic achievement or failure of the deaf and hard of hearing students in order to improve the quality of their education and upbringing of deaf and hard of hearing students in schools for the deaf and hard of hearing, but also in the field of inclusive education. This paper presents a part of the research results related to the correlation between the indicators of the wider social context and the academic performance of the deaf and hard hearing students. The sample consisted of 59 respondents attending schools for the deaf and hard of hearing students in the Republic of Serbia. For this research, the method of theoretical analysis and synthesis was used in the study of the relevant literature and the determination of theoretical facts important for the research problem, and the survey and content analysis were used as the research techniques. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in academic achievement in relation to the type of environment in which the students are living, or in relation to the presence of the cultural institutions in the environment. There is a difference in the academic achievements of the deaf and hard of hearing students in whose environment there are or there are no active organizations for the deaf and hard of hearing, which represents important data in order to create strategies to support the deaf and hard of hearing students.</p> Ivana Ristić Daliborka Popović Boško Milovanović Copyright (c) 2021 Ivana Ristić; Boško Milovanović; Daliborka Popović 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 265 274 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-265-274 The Relationship Between the Strategies of Transferring the Meanings of Information Messages and the Meaning-of-Life Orientations of Social Networks Users <p>The aim of the work is to identify strategies for transferring the meanings of information messages used by students in social networks, and how these strategies are related to the students’ meaning-of-life orientations. The study was conducted with the use of a theoretical method, as well as a survey, a content analysis, an expert method, a psychodiagnostic method, descriptive statistics, and also nonparametric tests, the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Spearman’s rank correlation method. Among modern youth, social networks are one of the most common sources of obtaining and distributing information. Therefore, it is important to find out what strategies for transferring the meanings of information messages are used by respondents. The expert method and content analysis allow us to identify 6 strategies for transferring meanings that students use in communication when transferring the meanings of various publications in social networks. Further analysis shows that each strategy has its own features of the meaning-of-life orientations components and significant relationships between the strategies of the meanings transferring and the components of the meaning-of-life orientations of social networks users are also revealed. Thus, we can conclude that the features of the transferring of meanings are significantly influenced by the meaning-of-life orientations, in particular, goals in life. Thus, the study emphasizes the importance of the semantic communication in social networks, the results of which can influence the effectiveness of communication, training, and the interaction among users.</p> Pavel N. Ermakov Ekaterina Belousova Copyright (c) 2021 Ekaterina Belousova, Pavel N. Ermakov 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 9 2 279 289 10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-2-275-289